I dont like the Big Bang, but I like the idea of a Big Bounce and a recurring universe. While the speed of light might be absolute to our perception, there’s a pretty fair chance it’s not an “absolute absolute” meaning that something can be going faster than the speed of light through a “fold” in space-time (another universe) but if someone lived in that universe, they wouldn’t be able to perceive that because they were a part of that universe. The same thing applies to us. In addition, having a fold in space-time allows something to go slower than the speed of light and yet get from Point A to Point B in less time than light can get there (because it takes a shortcut.) Something like a spinning black hole or a cosmic string could cause this to happen.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ring_singularity

An observer crossing the event horizon of a non-rotating (Schwarzschild) black hole cannot avoid the central singularity, which lies in the future world line of everything within the horizon. Thus one cannot avoid spaghettification by the tidal forces of the central singularity.

This is not necessarily true with a Kerr black hole. An observer falling into a Kerr black hole may be able to avoid the central singularity by making clever use of the inner event horizon associated with this class of black hole. This makes it possible for the Kerr black hole to act as a sort of wormhole, possibly even a traversable wormhole.[2]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerr_metric#Kerr_black_holes_as_wormholes

Although the Kerr solution appears to be singular at the roots of Δ = 0, these are actually coordinate singularities, and, with an appropriate choice of new coordinates, the Kerr solution can be smoothly extended through the values of corresponding to these roots. The larger of these roots determines the location of the event horizon, and the smaller determines the location of a Cauchy horizon. A (future-directed, time-like) curve can start in the exterior and pass through the event horizon. Once having passed through the event horizon, the coordinate now behaves like a time coordinate, so it must decrease until the curve passes through the Cauchy horizon.

The region beyond the Cauchy horizon has several surprising features. The coordinate again behaves like a spatial coordinate and can vary freely. The interior region has a reflection symmetry, so that a (future-directed time-like) curve may continue along a symmetric path, which continues through a second Cauchy horizon, through a second event horizon, and out into a new exterior region which is isometric to the original exterior region of the Kerr solution. The curve could then escape to infinity in the new region or enter the future event horizon of the new exterior region and repeat the process. This second exterior is sometimes thought of as another universe. On the other hand, in the Kerr solution, the singularity is a ring, and the curve may pass through the center of this ring. The region beyond permits closed time-like curves. Since the trajectory of observers and particles in general relativity are described by time-like curves, it is possible for observers in this region to return to their past.

While it is expected that the exterior region of the Kerr solution is stable, and that all rotating black holes will eventually approach a Kerr metric, the interior region of the solution appears to be unstable, much like a pencil balanced on its point.[6] This is related to the idea of cosmic censorship.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmic_string

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black-hole_cosmology

A black-hole cosmology (also called Schwarzschild cosmology or black-hole cosmological model) is a cosmological model in which the observable universe is the interior of a black hole. Such models were originally proposed by theoretical physicist Raj Pathria,[1] and concurrently by mathematician I. J. Good.[2]

Any such model requires that the Hubble radius of the observable universe is equal to its Schwarzschild radius, that is, the product of its mass and the Schwarzschild proportionality constant. This is indeed known to be nearly the case; however, most cosmologists consider this close match a coincidence.[3]

In the version as originally proposed by Pathria and Good, and studied more recently by, among others, Nikodem Popławski, [4] the observable universe is the interior of a black hole existing as one of possibly many inside a larger universe, or multiverse.

According to general relativity, the gravitational collapse of a sufficiently compact mass forms a singular Schwarzschild black hole. In the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity, however, it forms a regular Einstein-Rosen bridge, or wormhole. Schwarzschild wormholes and Schwarzschild black holes are different, mathematical solutions of general relativity and the Einstein–Cartan theory. Yet for distant observers, the exteriors of both solutions with the same mass are indistinguishable. The Einstein–Cartan theory extends general relativity by removing a constraint of the symmetry of the affine connection and regarding its antisymmetric part, the torsion tensor, as a dynamical variable. Torsion naturally accounts for the quantum-mechanical, intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of matter. The minimal coupling between torsion and Dirac spinors generates a repulsive spin-spin interaction which is significant in fermionic matter at extremely high densities. Such an interaction prevents the formation of a gravitational singularity. Instead, the collapsing matter reaches an enormous but finite density and rebounds, forming the other side of an Einstein-Rosen bridge, which grows as a new universe.[5] Accordingly, the Big Bang was a nonsingular Big Bounce at which the universe had a finite, minimum scale factor.[6]

also, you might find cyclic cosmology interesting

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclic_model

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Bounce#Recent_developments_in_the_theory

Recent developments in the theory[edit]
Martin Bojowald, an assistant professor of physics at Pennsylvania State University, published a study in July 2007 detailing work somewhat related to loop quantum gravity that claimed to mathematically solve the time before the Big Bang, which would give new weight to the oscillatory universe and Big Bounce theories.[4]

One of the main problems with the Big Bang theory is that at the moment of the Big Bang, there is a singularity of zero volume and infinite energy. This is normally interpreted as the end of the physics as we know it; in this case, of the theory of general relativity. This is why one expects quantum effects to become important and avoid the singularity.

However, research in loop quantum cosmology purported to show that a previously existing universe collapsed, not to the point of singularity, but to a point before that where the quantum effects of gravity become so strongly repulsive that the universe rebounds back out, forming a new branch. Throughout this collapse and bounce, the evolution is unitary.

Bojowald also claims that some properties of the universe that collapsed to form ours can also be determined. Some properties of the prior universe are not determinable however due to some kind of uncertainty principle.

This work is still in its early stages and very speculative. Some extensions by further scientists have been published in Physical Review Letters.[5]

In 2003, Peter Lynds has put forward a new cosmology model in which time is cyclic. In his theory our Universe will eventually stop expanding and then contract. Before becoming a singularity, as one would expect from Hawking’s black hole theory, the Universe would bounce. Lynds claims that a singularity would violate the second law of thermodynamics and this stops the Universe from being bounded by singularities. The Big Crunch would be avoided with a new Big Bang. Lynds suggests the exact history of the Universe would be repeated in each cycle in an eternal recurrence. Some critics argue that while the Universe may be cyclic, the histories would all be variants.[citation needed] Lynds’ theory has been dismissed by mainstream physicists for the lack of a mathematical model behind its philosophical considerations.[6]

In 2011, Nikodem Popławski showed that a nonsingular Big Bounce appears naturally in the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity.[7] This theory extends general relativity by removing a constraint of the symmetry of the affine connection and regarding its antisymmetric part, the torsion tensor, as a dynamical variable. The minimal coupling between torsion and Dirac spinors generates a spin-spin interaction which is significant in fermionic matter at extremely high densities. Such an interaction averts the unphysical Big Bang singularity, replacing it with a cusp-like bounce at a finite minimum scale factor, before which the Universe was contracting. This scenario also explains why the present Universe at largest scales appears spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic, providing a physical alternative to cosmic inflation.

In 2012, a new theory of nonsingular big bounce was successfully constructed within the frame of standard Einstein gravity.[8] This theory combines the benefits of matter bounce and Ekpyrotic cosmology. Particularly, the famous BKL instability, that the homogeneous and isotropic background cosmological solution is unstable to the growth of anisotropic stress, is resolved in this theory. Moreover, curvature perturbations seeded in matter contraction are able to form a nearly scale-invariant primordial power spectrum and thus provides a consistent mechanism to explain the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB) observations alternative to inflation.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikodem_Popławski

Popławski theorizes that torsion manifests itself as a repulsive force which causes fermions to be spatially extended and prevents the formation of a gravitational singularity within the black hole’s event horizon.[12] Because of torsion, the collapsing matter on the other side of the horizon reaches an enormous but finite density, explodes and rebounds, forming an Einstein-Rosen bridge (wormhole) to a new, closed, expanding universe.[13][14] Analogously, the Big Bang is replaced by the Big Bounce before which the Universe was the interior of a black hole.[15] This scenario also explains why the present Universe at largest scales appears spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic, providing a physical alternative to cosmic inflation, and may explain the arrow of time and solve the black hole information paradox. Torsion may also be responsible for the observed asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the Universe.[16] The rotation of a black hole would influence the spacetime on the other side of its event horizon and result in a preferred direction in the new universe. Popławski suggests that the observed anomalies in the cosmic microwave background might thus provide evidence for his theory.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmological_constant#Cyclic_model

More recent work has suggested the problem may be indirect evidence of a cyclic universe possibly as allowed by string theory. With every cycle of the universe (Big Bang then eventually a Big Crunch) taking about a trillion (1012) years, “the amount of matter and radiation in the universe is reset, but the cosmological constant is not. Instead, the cosmological constant gradually diminishes over many cycles to the small value observed today.”[18] Critics respond that, as the authors acknowledge in their paper, the model “entails … the same degree of tuning required in any cosmological model”.[19]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_teleportation#Experimental_results_and_records

Work in 1998 verified the initial predictions,[13] and the distance of teleportation was increased in August 2004 to 600 meters, using optical fiber.[14] The longest distance yet claimed to be achieved for quantum teleportation is 143 km (89 mi), performed in May 2012, between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife off the Atlantic coast of north Africa.[15] In April 2011, experimenters reported that they had demonstrated teleportation of wave packets of light up to a bandwidth of 10 MHz while preserving strongly nonclassical superposition states.[16][17]

Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute successfully used quantum teleportation to transmit information between clouds of gas atoms, notable because the clouds of gas are macroscopic atomic ensembles.[18][19]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_tunnelling#The_tunnelling_problem

Spontaneous DNA mutation[edit]
Spontaneous mutation of DNA occurs when normal DNA replication takes place after a particularly significant proton has defied the odds in quantum tunnelling in what is called “proton tunnelling”[14] (quantum biology). A hydrogen bond joins normal base pairs of DNA. There exists a double well potential along a hydrogen bond separated by a potential energy barrier. It is believed that the double well potential is asymmetric with one well deeper than the other so the proton normally rests in the deeper well. For a mutation to occur, the proton must have tunnelled into the shallower of the two potential wells. The movement of the proton from its regular position is called a tautomeric transition. If DNA replication takes place in this state, the base pairing rule for DNA may be jeopardised causing a mutation.[15] Per-Olov Lowdin was the first to develop this theory of spontaneous mutation within the double helix (quantum bio). Other instances of quantum tunnelling-induced mutations in biology are believed to be a cause of ageing and cancer.

It is possible for spin zero particles to travel faster than the speed of light when tunnelling.[3] This apparently violates the principle of causality, since there will be a frame of reference in which it arrives before it has left. However, careful analysis of the transmission of the wave packet shows that there is actually no violation of relativity theory.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retrocausality

Retrocausality (also called retro-causation, retro-chronal causation, backward causation, and similar terms) is any of several hypothetical phenomena or processes that reverse causality, allowing an effect to occur before its cause.

Retrocausality is primarily a thought experiment in philosophy of science based on elements of physics, addressing the question: Can the future affect the present, and can the present affect the past?[1] Philosophical considerations of time travel often address the same issues as retrocausality, as do treatments of the subject in fiction, although the two terms are not universally synonymous.[2]

While some discussion of retrocausality is confined to fringe science or pseudoscience, a few physical theories with mainstream legitimacy have sometimes been interpreted as leading to retrocausality. This has been problematic in physics because the distinction between cause and effect is not made at the most fundamental level within the field of physics.[3]

Antimatter[edit]

Time runs left to right in this Feynman diagram of electron-positron annihilation. When interpreted to include retrocausality, the electron (marked e-) was not destroyed, instead becoming the positron (e+) and moving backward in time.
As the modern understanding of particle physics began to develop, retrocausality was at times employed as a tool to model then-unfamiliar or unusual conditions, including electromagnetism and antimatter.[citation needed]

The Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory, proposed by John Archibald Wheeler and Richard Feynman, uses retrocausality and a temporal form of destructive interference to explain the absence of a type of converging concentric wave suggested by certain solutions to Maxwell’s equations.[13] These advanced waves don’t have anything to do with cause and effect, they are just a different mathematical way to describe normal waves. The reason they were proposed is so that a charged particle would not have to act on itself, which, in normal classical electromagnetism leads to an infinite self-force.[14]

Feynman, and earlier Stueckelberg, proposed an interpretation of the positron as an electron moving backward in time,[15] reinterpreting the negative-energy solutions of the Dirac equation. Electrons moving backward in time would have a positive electric charge. Wheeler invoked this concept to explain the identical properties shared by all electrons, suggesting that “they are all the same electron” with a complex, self-intersecting worldline.[16] Yoichiro Nambu later applied it to all production and annihilation of particle-antiparticle pairs, stating that “the eventual creation and annihilation of pairs that may occur now and then is no creation or annihilation, but only a change of direction of moving particles, from past to future, or from future to past.”[17] The backwards in time point of view is nowadays accepted as completely equivalent to other pictures,[18] but it doesn’t have anything to do with the macroscopic terms “cause” and “effect”, which do not appear in a microscopic physical description.

Current topics[edit]
Open topics in physics, especially involving the reconciliation of gravity with quantum physics, suggest that retrocausality may be possible under certain circumstances.

Closed timelike curves, in which the world line of an object returns to its origin, arise from some exact solutions to the Einstein field equation. Although closed timelike curves do not appear to exist under normal conditions, extreme environments of spacetime, such as a traversable wormhole[19] or the region near certain cosmic strings,[20] may allow their formation, implying a theoretical possibility of retrocausality. The exotic matter or topological defects required for the creation of those environments have not been observed. Furthermore, Stephen Hawking has suggested a mechanism he describes as the chronology protection conjecture, which would destroy any such closed timelike curve before it could be used.[21] These objections to the existence of closed timelike curves are not universally accepted, however.[22]

Retrocausality is sometimes associated with the nonlocal correlations that generically arise from quantum entanglement,[23] which Albert Einstein famously[peacock term] called “spooky action at a distance”, including the notable special case of the delayed choice quantum eraser.[24] This is not generally[vague] agreed upon within the physics community because verifying nonlocal correlations requires ordinary subluminal communication, since the no communication theorem prevents the superluminal transfer of information, and because fundamental descriptions of matter and forces require the full framework of quantum field theory in which spacelike-separated operators commute. Accounts of quantum entanglement that do not involve retrocausality generally[vague] emphasize how the experiments demonstrating these correlations can equally well be described from different reference frames, that disagree on which measurement is a “cause” versus an “effect”, as necessary to be consistent with special relativity.[25][26] The description of such nonlocal quantum entanglements can be described in a way that is manifestly free of retrocausality if the states of the observers are included in the quantum treatment,[27] which is often but not exclusively associated with the many worlds interpretation.

Retrocausality is also associated with the two-state vector formalism (TSVF) in quantum mechanics, where the present is characterised by quantum states of the past and the future taken in combination.[28]

One physicist has reportedly presented the design for an experiment to test for backward causation in quantum entanglement to begin in 2007.[3][29][30][31]

Hypothetical superluminal particles called tachyons would have a spacelike trajectory, and thus move backward in time according to observers in some reference frames. Despite frequent depiction in science fiction as a method to send messages back in time, theories predicting tachyons do not permit them to interact with normal “tardyonic” matter in a way that would violate standard causality. Specifically, the Feinberg reinterpretation principle renders impossible construction of a tachyon detector capable of receiving information.[32] Within modern quantum field theory, tachyons (or particles with imaginary mass) are interpreted to signify that the theory has been expanded about a configuration that is a local maximum of potential energy, instead of a local minimum

Advertisements