http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_surveillance_disclosures_(1970–2013) Global surveillance refers to the practice of globalized mass surveillance on entire populations across national borders.[1] Although its existence was first revealed in the 1970s, it did not receive much public attention until the existence of ECHELON was revealed in the 1980s and confirmed in the 1990s.[2] In 2013, it gained worldwide media attention due to the global surveillance disclosure by Edward Snowden.[3] Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 1970s 1.2 1980s–1990s 1.3 2000s 1.4 2010–2013 2 Disclosures since 2013 3 See also 4 References History[edit] Timeline 1975 – The Church Committee revealed the existence of the NSA.[4][5] November 3, 1999 – The BBC confirmed the existence of the global spying network ECHELON[2] The September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center led to major reforms of U.S. intelligence agencies, and paved the way for the establishment of the Director of National Intelligence position December 16, 2005 – After withholding its publication for a year, The New York Times released an article under the following headline: “Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts”[6] On January 1, 2006, President Bush emphasized that “This is a limited program designed to prevent attacks on the United States of America. And I repeat, limited.”[7] May 11, 2006 – USA Today reported that the NSA has a “massive database of Americans’ phone calls”[8] Shortly afterwards, Presidet Bush emphasized that the NSA’s surveillance is limited and within the law[9] June 6, 2013 – Britain’s The Guardian newspaper reported that the NSA is “collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily”[10] On June 7, 2013, President Obama emphasized the importance of government surveillance to prevent terrorist attacks 1970s[edit] In 1972, NSA analyst Perry Fellwock (under the pseudonym “Winslow Peck”) introduced the readers of Ramparts magazine to the NSA and to the UKUSA Agreement.[11] In 1976, a separate article in Time Out magazine revealed the existence of the GCHQ.[12] 1980s–1990s[edit] In 1982, James Bamford’s book about the NSA, The Puzzle Palace, was first published. Bamford’s second book, Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency, was published 2 decades later. In 1988, the ECHELON network was revealed by Margaret Newsham, a Lockheed employee. Newsham told a member of the U.S. Congress that the telephone calls of Strom Thurmond, a Republican U.S. senator, were being collected by the NSA. Congressional investigators determined that “targeting of U.S. political figures would not occur by accident. but was designed into the system from the start.”[13] By the late 1990s, ECHELON was reportedly capable of monitoring up to 90% of all internet traffic.[14] According to the BBC in May 2001, however, “The US Government still refuses to admit that Echelon even exists.”[14] 2000s[edit] In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, William Binney, along with J. Kirke Wiebe and Edward Loomis, asked the U.S. Defense Department to investigate the NSA for allegedly wasting “millions and millions of dollars” on Trailblazer, a system intended to analyze data carried on communications networks such as the Internet. Binney was also publicly critical of the NSA for spying on U.S. citizens after the September 11, 2001 attacks.[15] Binney claimed that the NSA had failed to uncover the 9/11 plot despite its massive interception of data.[16] On December 16, 2005, The New York Times published a report under the headline “Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts”, which was co-written by Eric Lichtblau and the Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist James Risen. According to The Times, the article’s date of publication was delayed for a year because of national security concerns.[17] In 2006, further details of the NSA’s domestic surveillance of U.S. citizens was provided by USA Today. The newspaper released a report on May 11, 2006 detailing the NSA’s “massive database” of phone records collected from “tens of millions” of U.S. citizens. According to USA Today, these phone records were provided by several telecom companies such as AT&T, Verizon and BellSouth.[8] In 2008, the security analyst Babak Pasdar revealed the existence of the so-called “Quantico circuit” that he and his team had set up in 2003. The circuit provided the U.S. federal government with a backdoor into the network of an unnamed wireless provider, which was later independently identified as Verizon.[18] 2010–2013[edit] In 2011, details of the mass surveillance industry were released by WikiLeaks. According to Julian Assange, “We are in a world now where not only is it theoretically possible to record nearly all telecommunications traffic out of a country, all telephone calls, but where there is an international industry selling the devices now to do it.”[19] Disclosures since 2013[edit] Main article: Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present) See also[edit] History of surveillance NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07) References[edit] Jump up ^ Webb, Maureen (2007). Illusions of Security: Global Surveillance and Democracy in the Post-9/11 World (1. ed. ed.). San Francisco: City Lights Books. ISBN 0872864766. ^ Jump up to: a b Andrew Bomford (3 November 1999). “Echelon spy network revealed”. BBC. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman (24 December 2013). “Edward Snowden, after months of NSA revelations, says his mission’s accomplished”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 25 December 2013. “Taken together, the revelations have brought to light a global surveillance system that cast off many of its historical restraints after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. Secret legal authorities empowered the NSA to sweep in the telephone, Internet and location records of whole populations.” Jump up ^ Schorr, Daniel (29 January 2006). “A Brief History of the NSA”. NPR. Retrieved 2 February 2014. Jump up ^ Ewen MacAskill, Julian Borger and Glenn Greenwald (6 June 2013). “The National Security Agency: surveillance giant with eyes on America”. The Guardian. Retrieved 2 February 2014. Jump up ^ Risen, James; Lichtblau, Eric (December 16, 2005). “Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts”. The New York Times. Retrieved August 14, 2013. “The White House asked The New York Times not to publish this article” Jump up ^ “President Visits Troops at Brooke Army Medical Center”. White House. January 1, 2006. Retrieved August 15, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Leslie Cauley (5/11/2006). “NSA has massive database of Americans’ phone calls”. USA Today. Jump up ^ JOHN O’NEIL (May 11, 2006). “Bush Says U.S. Spying Is Not Widespread”. The New York Times. Jump up ^ Glenn Greenwald (June 6, 2013). “NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved September 16, 2013. Jump up ^ “U.S. Electronic Espionage: A Memoir”. Ramparts. August 1972. pp. 35–50. “The SIGINT community was defined by a TOP SECRET treaty signed in 1947. It was called the UKUSA treaty. The National Security Agency signed for the U.S. and became what’s called First Party to the Treaty.” Jump up ^ Norton-Taylor, Richard (2013-08-21). “Surveillance secrecy: the legacy of GCHQ’s years under cover”. The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-11-30. “GCHQ’s cover was first blown in 1976 by an article, The Eavesdroppers, published by the London magazine, Time Out.” Jump up ^ Campbell, Duncan (1988-08-12), “Somebody’s Listening”, New Statesman, archived from the original on 2013-04-20, “The Congressional officials were first told of the Thurmond interception by a former employee of the Lockheed Space and Missiles Corporation, Margaret Newsham, who now lives in Sunnyvale, California.” ^ Jump up to: a b “Q&A: What you need to know about Echelon”. BBC. 29 May 2001. Retrieved 18 December 2013. Jump up ^ Shorrock, Tim (April 15, 2013). “The Untold Story: Obama’s Crackdown on Whistleblowers: The NSA Four reveal how a toxic mix of cronyism and fraud blinded the agency before 9/11”. The Nation. Jump up ^ Mayer, Jane (May 23, 2011). “The Secret Sharer: Is Thomas Drake an enemy of the state?”. The New Yorker. Jump up ^ JAMES RISEN and ERIC LICHTBLAU (December 16, 2005). “Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts”. The New York Times. Jump up ^ Poulsen, Kevin (March 6, 2008). “Whistle-Blower: Feds Have a Backdoor Into Wireless Carrier—Congress Reacts”. Wired. Retrieved August 14, 2013. Jump up ^ “Wikileaks disclosure shines light on Big Brother”. CBS News. December 1, 2011. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_surveillance_disclosures_(2013–present) Ongoing news reports in the international media have revealed operational details about the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) and its international partners’ global surveillance[1] of foreign nationals and U.S. citizens. The reports mostly emanate from a cache of top secret documents leaked by ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden, who obtained them while working for Booz Allen Hamilton, one of the largest contractors for defense and intelligence in the United States.[2] In addition to a trove of U.S. federal documents, Snowden’s cache reportedly contains thousands of Australian, British and Canadian intelligence files that he had accessed via the exclusive “Five Eyes” network. In June 2013, the first of Snowden’s documents were published simultaneously by The Washington Post and The Guardian, attracting considerable public attention.[3] The disclosure continued throughout the entire year of 2013, and a significant portion of the full cache of the estimated 1.7 million documents[4] was later obtained and published by many other media outlets worldwide, most notably The New York Times, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Der Spiegel (Germany), O Globo (Brazil), Le Monde (France), L’espresso (Italy), NRC Handelsblad (the Netherlands), Dagbladet (Norway), El País (Spain), and Sveriges Television (Sweden).[5] These media reports have shed light on the implications of several secret treaties signed by members of the UKUSA community in their efforts to implement global surveillance. For example, Der Spiegel revealed how the German Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) transfers “massive amounts of intercepted data to the NSA”,[6] while Sveriges Television revealed the National Defence Radio Establishment (FRA) provided the NSA with data from its cable collection, under a secret treaty signed in 1954 for bilateral cooperation on surveillance.[7] Other security and intelligence agencies involved in the practice of global surveillance include those in Australia (ASD), Britain (GCHQ), Canada (CSEC), Denmark (PET), France (DGSE), Germany (BND), Italy (AISE), the Netherlands (AIVD), Norway (NIS), Spain (CNI), Switzerland (NDB), as well as Israel (ISNU), which receives raw, unfiltered data of U.S. citizens that is shared by the NSA.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] On June 14, 2013, United States prosecutors charged Edward Snowden with espionage and theft of government property.[16] In late July 2013, he was granted a one year temporary asylum by the Russian government,[17] contributing to a deterioration of Russia–United States relations.[18][19] On August 6, 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama made a public appearance on national television where he reassured Americans that “We don’t have a domestic spying program” and “There is no spying on Americans”.[20] Towards the end of October 2013, the British Prime Minister David Cameron warned The Guardian not to publish any more leaks, or it will receive a DA-Notice.[21] Currently, a criminal investigation of the disclosure is being undertaken by Britain’s Metropolitan Police Service.[22] In December 2013, The Guardian editor Alan Rusbridger said: “We have published I think 26 documents so far out of the 58,000 we’ve seen.”[23] The extent to which the media reports have responsibly informed the public is disputed. In January 2014 Obama said that “the sensational way in which these disclosures have come out has often shed more heat than light”[24] and critics such as Sean Wilentz have noted that many of the Snowden documents released do not concern domestic surveillance.[25] In its first assessment of these disclosures, The Pentagon concluded that Snowden committed the biggest “theft” of U.S. secrets in the history of the United States.[26] Sir David Omand, a former director of the GCHQ, described Snowden’s disclosure as the “most catastrophic loss to British intelligence ever”.[27] Contents [hide] 1 Background 1.1 Global surveillance 1.2 Disclosures 1.3 Historical context 2 Timeline 2.1 2013 2.1.1 June 2.1.2 July 2.1.3 August 2.1.4 September 2.1.5 October 2.1.6 November 2.1.7 December 2.2 2014 2.2.1 January 2.2.2 February 2.2.3 March 2.2.4 April 2.2.5 May 2.2.6 June 2.2.7 July 3 Reaction 3.1 Reactions of citizens 3.2 Reactions of political leaders 3.3 Review of intelligence agencies 3.4 Criticism 4 Gallery 5 Exceptionally Controlled Information 6 Comparison with previous leaks 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Background[edit] Barton Gellman, a Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist who led The Washington Post’s coverage of Snowden’s disclosures, summarized the leaks as follows: “Taken together, the revelations have brought to light a global surveillance system that cast off many of its historical restraints after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. Secret legal authorities empowered the NSA to sweep in the telephone, Internet and location records of whole populations.” —The Washington Post[28] The disclosure revealed specific details of the NSA’s close cooperation with U.S. federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)[29][30] and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)[31][32] in addition to the agency’s previously undisclosed financial payments to numerous commercial partners and telecommunications companies,[33][34][35] as well as its previously undisclosed relationships with international partners such as Britain,[36][37] France[13][38] Germany,[6][39] and its secret treaties with foreign governments that were recently established for sharing intercepted data of each other’s citizens.[8][40][41][42] The disclosures were made public over the course of several months since June 2013 by the press in several nations from the trove leaked by the former NSA contractor Edward J. Snowden,[43] who obtained the trove while working for Booz Allen Hamilton, one of the largest contractors for defense and intelligence in the United States.[2] George Brandis, the current Attorney-General of Australia, asserted that Snowden’s disclosure is the “most serious setback for Western intelligence since the second World War.”[44] Global surveillance[edit] Main article: Global surveillance Global surveillance programs Program International contributors and/or partners Commercial partners PRISM Australian Signals Directorate (ASD/DSD) of Australia[45] Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) of the UK[46] Algemene Inlichtingen en Veiligheidsdienst (AIVD) of the Netherlands[47] Microsoft[29][48][49] XKeyscore Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) of Germany[6][50] Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (BfV) of Germany[6][50] National Defence Radio Establishment (FRA) of Sweden[51][52] Tempora National Security Agency (NSA)[53][54] British Telecommunications (codenamed “Remedy”)[55] Interoute (codenamed “Streetcar”)[55] Level 3 (codenamed “Little”)[55] Global Crossing (codenamed “Pinnage”)[55] Verizon Business (codenamed “Dacron”)[55] Viatel (codenamed “Vitreous”)[55] Vodafone Cable (codenamed “Gerontic”)[55] MUSCULAR NSA[56] Project 6 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)[57] Stateroom DSD[58][59] Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC)[59][60] GCHQ[59][61] Special Collection Service (SCS)[59][61][62] Lustre NSA[63][64] Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE) of France[63][64] Last updated: December 2013 Disclosures[edit] Although the exact size of Snowden’s disclosure remains unknown, the following estimates have been put up by various government officials: At least 15,000 Australian intelligence files, according to Australian officials[44] At least 58,000 British intelligence files, according to British officials[65] About 1.7 million U.S. intelligence files, according to U.S. officials[26] As a contractor of the NSA, Snowden was granted access to U.S. government documents along with top secret documents of several allied governments, via the exclusive Five Eyes network.[66] Snowden claims that he is currently not in physical possession of any of these documents, after having surrendered all copies to the journalists he met in Hong Kong.[67] According to his lawyer, Snowden has pledged not to release any documents while in Russia, leaving the responsibility for further disclosures solely to journalists.[68] As of 2014, the following news outlets have accessed some of the documents provided by Snowden: Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Channel 4, Der Spiegel, El Pais, El Mundo, L’espresso, Le Monde, NBC, NRC Handelsblad, Dagbladet, O Globo, South China Morning Post, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Sveriges Television, The Guardian, The New York Times, and The Washington Post. Historical context[edit] Main article: Global surveillance disclosures (1970–2013) In the 1970s, NSA analyst Perry Fellwock (under the pseudonym “Winslow Peck”) revealed the existence of the UKUSA Agreement, which forms the basis of the ECHELON network, whose existence was revealed in 1988 by Lockheed employee Margaret Newsham.[69][70] Months before the September 11 attacks and during its aftermath, further details of the global surveillance apparatus were provided by various individuals such as the former MI5 official David Shayler and the journalist James Bamford,[71][72] who were followed by: NSA employees William Binney and Thomas Andrews Drake, who revealed that the NSA is rapidly expanding its surveillance[73][74] GCHQ employee Katharine Gun, who revealed a plot to bug UN delegates shortly before the Iraq War[75] British Cabinet Minister Clare Short, who revealed in 2004 that the UK had spied on UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan[76] NSA employee Russ Tice, who triggered the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy after revealing that the Bush Administration had spied on U.S. citizens without court approval[77][78] Journalist Leslie Cauley of USA Today, who revealed in 2006 that the NSA is keeping a massive database of Americans’ phone calls[79] AT&T employee Mark Klein, who revealed in 2006 the existence of Room 641A of the NSA[80] Activists Julian Assange and Chelsea Manning, who revealed in 2011 the existence of the mass surveillance industry[81] Journalist Michael Hastings, who revealed in 2012 that protestors of the Occupy Wall Street movement were kept under surveillance[82] In the aftermath of Snowden’s revelations, The Pentagon concluded that Snowden committed the biggest “theft” of U.S. secrets in the history of the United States.[26] In Australia, the coalition government described the leaks as the most damaging blow dealt to Australian intelligence in history.[44] Sir David Omand, a former director of the GCHQ, described Snowden’s disclosure as the “most catastrophic loss to British intelligence ever”.[27] Timeline[edit] Main article: Timeline of global surveillance disclosures (2013–present) The Mira hotel in Hong Kong, where Edward Snowden hosted his first meeting with Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras, and journalist Ewen MacAskill of The Guardian[83] In April 2012, NSA contractor Edward Snowden began downloading documents.[84] That year, Snowden had made his first contact with journalist Glenn Greenwald of The Guardian and he contacted documentary filmmaker Laura Poitras in January 2013.[85][86] 2013[edit] In May 2013, Snowden went on temporary leave from his position at the NSA, citing the pretext of receiving treatment for his epilepsy. Towards the end of May, he traveled to Hong Kong.[87][88] Greenwald, Poitras and the Guardian’s defence and intelligence correspondent Ewen MacAskill flew to Hong Kong to meet Snowden. June[edit] After the U.S.-based editor of The Guardian held several meetings in New York City, it was decided that Greenwald, Poitras and the Guardian’s defence and intelligence correspondent Ewen MacAskill would fly to Hong Kong to meet Snowden. On June 5, in the first media report based on the leaked material,[89] The Guardian exposed a top secret court order showing that the NSA had collected phone records from over 120 million Verizon subscribers.[90] Under the order, the numbers of both parties on a call, as well as the location data, unique identifiers, time of call, and duration of call were handed over to the FBI, which turned over the records to the NSA.[90] According to The Wall Street Journal, the Verizon order is part of a controversial data program, which seeks to stockpile records on all calls made in the U.S., but doesn’t collect information directly from T-Mobile US and Verizon Wireless, in part because of their foreign ownership ties.[91] On June 6, 2013, the second media disclosure, the revelation of the PRISM surveillance program (which collects the e-mail, voice, text and video chats of foreigners and an unknown number of Americans from Microsoft, Google, Yahoo, Apple and other tech giants),[92][93][94][95] was published simultaneously by The Guardian and The Washington Post.[83][96] Slide from a 2008 NSA presentation about XKeyscore, showing a worldmap with the locations of XKeyscore servers Der Spiegel revealed NSA spying on multiple diplomatic missions of the European Union (EU) and the United Nations Headquarters in New York.[97][98] During specific episodes within a four-year period, the NSA hacked several Chinese mobile-phone companies,[99] the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Tsinghua University in Beijing,[100] and the Asian fiber-optic network operator Pacnet.[101] Only Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the UK are explicitly exempted from NSA attacks, whose main target in the EU is Germany.[102] A method of bugging encrypted fax machines used at an EU embassy is codenamed Dropmire.[103] During the 2009 G-20 London summit, the British intelligence agency Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) intercepted the communications of foreign diplomats.[104] In addition, the GCHQ has been intercepting and storing mass quantities of fiber-optic traffic via Tempora.[105] Two principal components of Tempora are called “Mastering the Internet” (MTI) and “Global Telecoms Exploitation”.[106] The data is preserved for three days while metadata is kept for thirty days.[107] Data collected by the GCHQ under Tempora is shared with the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States.[106] From 2001 to 2011, the NSA collected vast amounts of metadata records detailing the email and internet usage of Americans via Stellar Wind,[108] which was later terminated due to operational and resource constraints. It was subsequently replaced by newer surveillance programs such as ShellTrumpet, which “processed its one trillionth metadata record” by the end of December 2012.[109] According to the Boundless Informant, over 97 billion pieces of intelligence were collected over a 30-day period ending in March 2013. Out of all 97 billion sets of information, about 3 billion data sets originated from U.S. computer networks[110] and around 500 million metadata records were collected from German networks.[111] Several weeks later, it was revealed that the Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) of Germany transfers massive amounts of metadata records to the NSA.[112] Stephen Vladeck, a professor at the American University’s Washington College of Law, has argued that, without having to seek the approval of the court (which he has said merely reviews certifications to ensure that they – and not the surveillance itself – comply with the various statutory requirements), the U.S. Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence can engage in sweeping programmatic surveillance for one year at a time.[113] There are procedures used by the NSA to target non-U.S. persons[114] and procedures used by the NSA to minimize data collection from U.S. persons.[115] These court-approved policies allow the NSA to:[116][117] keep data that could potentially contain details of U.S. persons for up to five years; retain and make use of “inadvertently acquired” domestic communications if they contain usable intelligence, information on criminal activity, threat of harm to people or property, are encrypted, or are believed to contain any information relevant to cybersecurity; preserve “foreign intelligence information” contained within attorney–client communications; and access the content of communications gathered from “U.S. based machine[s]” or phone numbers in order to establish if targets are located in the U.S., for the purposes of ceasing further surveillance. Der Spiegel disclosed that Germany is the most targeted country of the 27 members of the European Union due to the NSA systematic monitoring and storage of Germany’s telephone and Internet connection data. According to the magazine the NSA stores data from around half a billion communications connections in Germany each month. This data includes telephone calls, emails, mobile-phone text messages and chat transcripts.[118] On June 11, 2013, The Guardian published a snapshot of the NSA’s global map of electronic data collection for the month of March 2013. Known as the Boundless Informant, the program is used by the NSA to track the amount of data being analyzed over a specific period of time. The color scheme ranges from green (least subjected to surveillance) through yellow and orange to red (most surveillance). Outside the Middle East, only China, Germany, India, Kenya, Colombia, and the United States are colored orange or yellow July[edit] The NSA gained massive amounts of information captured from the monitored data traffic in Europe. For example in December 2013 the NSA gathered on an average day metadata from some 15 million telephone connections and 10 million Internet datasets. The NSA also monitored the European Commission in Brussels and monitored EU diplomatic Facilities in Washington and at the United Nations by placing bugs in offices as well as infiltrating computer networks.[119] The U.S. government made as part of its UPSTREAM data collection program deals with companies to ensure that it had access to and hence the capability to surveil undersea fiber-optic cables which deliver e-mails, Web pages, other electronic communications and phone calls from one continent to another at the speed of light.[120][121] According to the Brazilian newspaper O Globo, the NSA spied on millions of emails and calls of Brazilian citizens,[122][123] while Australia and New Zealand have been involved in the joint operation of the NSA’s global analytical system XKeyscore.[124][125] Among the numerous allied facilities contributing to XKeyscore are four installations in Australia and one in New Zealand: Pine Gap near Alice Springs, Australia, which is partly operated by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)[125] The Shoal Bay Receiving Station near Darwin, Australia, is operated by the Australian Signals Directorate (ASD)[125] The Australian Defence Satellite Communications Station near Geraldton, Australia, is operated by the ASD[125] HMAS Harman outside Canberra, Australia, is operated by the ASD[125] Waihopai Station near Blenheim, New Zealand, is operated by New Zealand’s Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB)[125] O Globo released an NSA document titled “Primary FORNSAT Collection Operations”, which revealed the specific locations and codenames of the FORNSAT intercept stations in 2002.[126] According to Edward Snowden, the NSA has established secret intelligence partnerships with many Western governments.[125] The Foreign Affairs Directorate (FAD) of the NSA is responsible for these partnerships, which, according to Snowden, are organized such that foreign governments can “insulate their political leaders” from public outrage in the event that these global surveillance partnerships are leaked.[127] In an interview published by Der Spiegel, Snowden accused the NSA of being “in bed together with the Germans”.[128] The NSA granted the German intelligence agencies BND (foreign intelligence) and BfV (domestic intelligence) access to its controversial XKeyscore system.[129] In return, the BND turned over copies of two systems named Mira4 and Veras, reported to exceed the NSA’s SIGINT capabilities in certain areas.[6] Every day, massive amounts of metadata records are collected by the BND and transferred to the NSA via the Bad Aibling Station near Munich, Germany.[6] In December 2012 alone, the BND handed over 500 million metadata records to the NSA.[130][131] In a document dated January 2013, the NSA acknowledged the efforts of the BND to undermine privacy laws: “The BND has been working to influence the German government to relax interpretation of the privacy laws to provide greater opportunities of intelligence sharing[131] According to an NSA document dated April 2013, Germany has now become the NSA’s “most prolific partner”.[131] Under a section of a separate document leaked by Snowden titled “Success Stories”, the NSA acknowledged the efforts of the German government to expand the BND’s international data sharing with partners: “The German government modifies its interpretation of the G-10 privacy law … to afford the BND more flexibility in sharing protected information with foreign partners.”[50] In addition, the German government was well aware of the PRISM surveillance program long before Edward Snowden made details public. According to Angela Merkel’s spokesman Steffen Seibert, there are two separate PRISM programs – one is used by the NSA and the other is used by NATO forces in Afghanistan.[132] The two programs are “not identical”.[132] The Guardian revealed further details of the NSA’s XKeyscore tool, which allows government analysts to search through vast databases containing emails, online chats and the browsing histories of millions of individuals without prior authorization.[133][134][135] Microsoft “developed a surveillance capability to deal” with the interception of encrypted chats on Outlook.com, within five months after the service went into testing. NSA had access to Outlook.com emails because “Prism collects this data prior to encryption.”[48] In addition, Microsoft worked with the FBI to enable the NSA to gain access to its cloud storage service SkyDrive. An internal NSA document dating from August 3, 2012 described the PRISM surveillance program as a “team sport”.[48] Even if there is no reason to suspect U.S. citizens of wrongdoing, the CIA’s National Counterterrorism Center is allowed to examine federal government files for possible criminal behavior. Previously the NTC was barred to do so, unless a person was a terror suspect or related to an investigation.[136] Snowden also confirmed that Stuxnet was cooperatively developed by the United States and Israel.[137] In a report unrelated to Edward Snowden, the French newspaper Le Monde revealed that France’s DGSE was also undertaking mass surveillance, which it described as “illegal and outside any serious control”.[138][139] August[edit] Documents leaked by Edward Snowden that were seen by Süddeutsche Zeitung (SZ) and Norddeutscher Rundfunk revealed that several telecom operators have played a key role in helping the British intelligence agency Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) tap into worldwide fiber-optic communications. The telecom operators are: Verizon Business (codenamed “Dacron”)[55][140] British Telecommunications (codenamed “Remedy”)[55][140] Vodafone Cable (codenamed “Gerontic”)[55][140] Global Crossing (codenamed “Pinnage”)[55][140] Level 3 (codenamed “Little”)[55][140] Viatel (codenamed “Vitreous”)[55][140] Interoute (codenamed “Streetcar”)[55][140] Each of them were assigned a particular area of the international fiber-optic network for which they were individually responsible. The following networks have been infiltrated by the GCHQ: TAT-14 (Europe-USA), Atlantic Crossing 1 (Europe-USA), Circe South (France-UK), Circe North (The Netherlands-UK), Flag Atlantic-1, Flag Europa-Asia, SEA-ME-WE 3 (Southeast Asia-Middle East-Western Europe), SEA-ME-WE 4 (Southeast Asia-Middle East-Western Europe), Solas (Ireland-UK), UK-France 3, UK-Netherlands 14, ULYSSES (Europe-UK), Yellow (UK-USA) and Pan European Crossing.[141] Telecommunication companies who participated were “forced” to do so and had “no choice in the matter”.[141] Some of the companies were subsequently paid by GCHQ for their participation in the infiltration of the cables.[141] According to the SZ the GCHQ has access to the majority of internet and telephone communications flowing throughout Europe, can listen to phone calls, read emails and text messages, see which websites internet users from all around the world are visiting. It can also retain and analyse nearly the entire European internet traffic.[141] The GCHQ is collecting all data transmitted to and from the United Kingdom and Northern Europe via the undersea fibre optic telecommunications cable SEA-ME-WE 3. The Security and Intelligence Division (SID) of Singapore co-operates with Australia in accessing and sharing communications carried by the SEA-ME-WE-3 cable. The Australian Signals Directorate (ASD) is also in a partnership with British, American and Singaporean intelligence agencies to tap undersea fibre optic telecommunications cables that link Asia, the Middle East and Europe and carry much of Australia’s international phone and internet traffic.[142] The U.S. runs a top-secret surveillance program known as the Special Collection Service (SCS), which is based in over 80 U.S. consulates and embassies worldwide.[143][144] The NSA hacked the United Nations’ video conferencing system in Summer 2012 in violation of a UN agreement.[143][144] The NSA is not just intercepting the communications of Americans who are in direct contact with foreigners targeted overseas, but also searching the contents of vast amounts of e-mail and text communications into and out of the country by Americans who mention information about foreigners under surveillance.[145] It also spied on the Al Jazeera and gained access to its internal communications systems.[146] The NSA has built a surveillance network that has the capacity to reach roughly 75% of all U.S. Internet traffic.[147][148][149] U.S. Law-enforcement agencies use tools used by computer hackers to gather information on suspects.[150][151] An internal NSA audit from May 2012 identified 2776 incidents i.e. violations of the rules or court orders for surveillance of Americans and foreign targets in the U.S. in the period from April 2011 through March 2012, while U.S. officials stressed that any mistakes are not intentional.[152][153][154][155][156][157][158] The FISA Court that is supposed to provide critical oversight of the U.S. government’s vast spying programs has limited ability to do so and it must trust the government to report when it improperly spies on Americans.[159] A legal opinion declassified on August 21, 2013 revealed that the NSA intercepted for three years as many as 56,000 electronic communications a year of Americans who weren’t suspected of having links to terrorism, before FISA court that oversees surveillance found the operation unconstitutional in 2011.[160][161][162][163][164] Under the Corporate Partner Access project, major U.S. telecommunications providers receive hundreds of millions of dollars each year from the NSA.[165] Voluntary cooperation between the NSA and the providers of global communications took off during the 1970s under the cover name BLARNEY.[165] A letter drafted by the Obama administration specifically to inform Congress of the government’s mass collection of Americans’ telephone communications data was withheld from lawmakers by leaders of the House Intelligence Committee in the months before a key vote affecting the future of the program.[166][167] The NSA paid GCHQ over £100 Million between 2009 and 2012, in exchange for these funds GCHQ “must pull its weight and be seen to pull its weight.” Documents referenced in the article explain that the weaker British laws regarding spying are “a selling point” for the NSA. GCHQ is also developing the technology to “exploit any mobile phone at any time.”[168] The NSA has under a legal authority a secret backdoor into its databases gathered from large Internet companies enabling it to search for U.S. citizens’ email and phone calls without a warrant.[169][170] The Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board urged the U.S. intelligence chiefs to draft stronger US surveillance guidelines on domestic spying after finding that several of those guidelines have not been updated up to 30 years.[171][172] U.S. intelligence analysts have deliberately broken rules designed to prevent them from spying on Americans by choosing to ignore so-called “minimisation procedures” aimed at protecting privacy[173][174] and used the NSA’s agency’s enormous eavesdropping power to spy on love interests.[175] After the U.S. Foreign Secret Intelligence Court ruled in October 2011 that some of the NSA’s activities were unconstitutional, the agency paid millions of dollars to major internet companies to cover extra costs incurred in their involvement with the PRISM surveillance program.[176] “Mastering the Internet” (MTI) is part of the Interception Modernisation Programme (IMP) of the British government that involves the insertion of thousands of DPI (deep packet inspection) “black boxes” at various internet service providers, as revealed by the British media in 2009.[177] In 2013, it was further revealed that the NSA had made a £17.2  million financial contribution to the project, which is capable of vacuuming signals from up to 200 fibre-optic cables at all physical points of entry into Great Britain.[178] September[edit] The Guardian and the New York Times reported on secret documents leaked by Snowden showing that the NSA has been in “collaboration with technology companies” as part of “an aggressive, multipronged effort” to weaken the encryption used in commercial software, and the GCHQ has a team dedicated to cracking “Hotmail, Google, Yahoo and Facebook” traffic.[179][180][181][182][183][184] Israel, Sweden and Italy are also cooperating with American and British intelligence agencies. Under a secret treaty codenamed “Lustre”, French intelligence agencies transferred millions of metadata records to the NSA.[63][64][185][186] The Obama Administration secretly won permission from the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court in 2011 to reverse restrictions on the National Security Agency’s use of intercepted phone calls and e-mails, permitting the agency to search deliberately for Americans’ communications in its massive databases. The searches take place under a surveillance program Congress authorized in 2008 under Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. Under that law, the target must be a foreigner “reasonably believed” to be outside the United States, and the court must approve the targeting procedures in an order good for one year. But a warrant for each target would thus no longer be required. That means that communications with Americans could be picked up without a court first determining that there is probable cause that the people they were talking to were terrorists, spies or “foreign powers.” The FISC extended the length of time that the NSA is allowed to retain intercepted U.S. communications from five years to six years with an extension possible for foreign intelligence or counterintelligence purposes. Both measures were done without public debate or any specific authority from Congress.[187] A special branch of the NSA called “Follow the Money” (FTM) monitors international payments, banking and credit card transactions and later stores the collected data in the NSA’s own financial databank “Tracfin”.[188] The NSA monitored the communications of Brazil’s president Dilma Rousseff and her top aides.[189] The agency also spied on Brazil’s oil firm Petrobras as well as French diplomats, and gained access to the private network of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France and the SWIFT network.[190] In the United States, the NSA uses the analysis of phone call and e-mail logs of American citizens to create sophisticated graphs of their social connections that can identify their associates, their locations at certain times, their traveling companions and other personal information.[191] The NSA routinely shares raw intelligence data with Israel without first sifting it to remove information about U.S. citizens.[8][192] In an effort codenamed GENIE, computer specialists can control foreign computer networks using “covert implants,” a form of remotely transmitted malware on tens of thousands of devices annually.[193][194][195][196] As worldwide sales of smartphones began exceeding those of feature phones, the NSA decided to take advantage of the smartphone boom. This is particularly advantageous because the smartphone combines a myriad of data that would interest an intelligence agency, such as social contacts, user behavior, interests, location, photos and credit card numbers and passwords.[197] An internal NSA report from 2010 stated that the spread of the smartphone has been occurring “extremely rapidly”—developments that “certainly complicate traditional target analysis.”[197] According to the document, the NSA has set up task forces assigned to several smartphone manufacturers and operating systems, including Apple Inc.’s iPhone and iOS operating system, as well as Google’s Android mobile operating system.[197] Similarly, Britain’s GCHQ assigned a team to study and crack the BlackBerry.[197] An NSA presentation called “Your target is using a BlackBerry? Now what?” shows an intercepted Mexican government e-mail. Under the heading “iPhone capability”, the document notes that there are smaller NSA programs, known as “scripts”, that can perform surveillance on 38 different features of the iOS 3 and iOS 4 operating systems. These include the mapping feature, voicemail and photos, as well as Google Earth, Facebook and Yahoo! Messenger.[197] On September 9, 2013, an internal NSA presentation on iPhone Location Services was leaked by Der Spiegel. One slide shows scenes from Apple’s 1984-themed television commercial alongside the words “Who knew in 1984…”; another shows Steve Jobs holding an iPhone, with the text “…that this would be big brother…”; and a third shows happy consumers with their iPhones, completing the question with “…and the zombies would be paying customers?”[198] October[edit] On October 4, 2013, The Washington Post and The Guardian jointly reported that the NSA and the GCHQ have made repeated attempts to spy on anonymous Internet users who have been communicating in secret via the anonymity network Tor. Several of these surveillance operations involve the implantation of malicious code into the computers of Tor users who visit particular websites. The NSA and GCHQ have partly succeeded in blocking access to the anonymous network, diverting Tor users to insecure channels. The government agencies were also able to uncover the identity of some anonymous Internet users.[199][200][201][202][203][204][205][206][207] The Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC) has been using a program called Olympia to map the communications of Brazil’s Mines and Energy Ministry by targeting the metadata of phone calls and emails to and from the ministry.[208][209] The Australian Federal Government knew about the PRISM surveillance program months before Edward Snowden made details public.[210][211] The NSA gathered hundreds of millions of contact lists from personal e-mail and instant messaging accounts around the world. The agency didn’t target individuals. Instead it collected contact lists in large numbers that amount to a sizable fraction of the world’s e-mail and instant messaging accounts. Analysis of that data enables the agency to search for hidden connections and to map relationships within a much smaller universe of foreign intelligence targets.[212][213][214][215] The NSA monitored the public email account of former Mexican president Felipe Calderón (thus gaining access to the communications of high-ranking cabinet members), the E-Mails of several high-ranking members of Mexico’s security forces and text and the mobile phone communication of current Mexican president Enrique Peña Nieto.[216][217] The NSA tries to gather cellular and landline phone numbers—often obtained from American diplomats—for as many foreign officials as possible. The contents of the phone calls are stored in computer databases that can regularly be searched using keywords.[218][219] The NSA has been monitoring telephone conversations of 35 world leaders.[220] The U.S. government’s first public acknowledgment that it tapped the phones of world leaders was reported on October 28, 2013 by the Wall Street Journal after an internal U.S. government review turned up NSA monitoring of some 35 world leaders.[221] The GCHQ has tried to keep its mass surveillance program a secret because it feared a “damaging public debate” on the scale of its activities which could lead to legal challenges against them.[222] The Guardian revealed that the NSA had been monitoring telephone conversations of 35 world leaders after being given the numbers by an official in another U.S. government department. A confidential memo revealed that the NSA encouraged senior officials in such Departments as the White House, State and The Pentagon, to share their “Rolodexes” so the agency could add the telephone numbers of leading foreign politicians to their surveillance systems. Reacting to the news, German leader Angela Merkel, arriving in Brussels for an EU summit, accused the U.S. of a breach of trust, saying: “We need to have trust in our allies and partners, and this must now be established once again. I repeat that spying among friends is not at all acceptable against anyone, and that goes for every citizen in Germany.”[220] The NSA collected in 2010 data on ordinary Americans’ cellphone locations, but later discontinued it because it had no “operational value.”[223] Under Britain’s MUSCULAR programme, the NSA and the GCHQ have secretly broken into the main communications links that connect Yahoo and Google data centers around the world and thereby gained the ability to collect metadata and content at will from hundreds of millions of user accounts.[224][225][226][227][228] The mobile phone of German Chancellor Angela Merkel might have been tapped by U.S. intelligence.[229][230][231][232][233][234][235] According to the Spiegel this monitoring goes back to 2002[236][237][238] and ended in the summer of 2013,[221] while The New York Times reported that Germany has evidence that the NSA’s surveillance of Merkel began during George W. Bush’s tenure.[239] After learning from Der Spiegel magazine that the NSA has been listening in to her personal mobile phone, Merkel compared the snooping practices of the NSA with those of the Stasi.[240] It was reported in March 2014 by Der Spiegel that Merkel had also been placed on an NSA surveillance list alongside 122 other world leaders.[241] On October 31, 2013, Hans-Christian Ströbele, a member of the German Bundestag, met Snowden in Moscow and revealed the former intelligence contractor’s readiness to brief the German government on NSA spying.[242] A highly sensitive signals intelligence collection program known as Stateroom involves the interception of radio, telecommunications and internet traffic. It is operated out of the diplomatic missions of the Five Eyes (Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, United States) in numerous locations around the world. The program conducted at U.S. diplomatic missions is run in concert by the U.S. intelligence agencies NSA and CIA in a joint venture group called “Special Collection Service” (SCS), whose members work undercover in shielded areas of the American Embassies and Consulates, where they are officially accredited as diplomats and as such enjoy special privileges. Under diplomatic protection, they are able to look and listen unhindered. The SCS for example used the American Embassy near the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin to monitor communications in Germany’s government district with its parliament and the seat of the government.[235][243][244][245] Under the Stateroom surveillance programme, Australia operates clandestine surveillance facilities to intercept phone calls and data across much of Asia.[244][246] In France, the NSA targeted people belonging to the worlds of business, politics or French state administration. The NSA monitored and recorded the content of telephone communications and the history of the connections of each target i.e. the metadata.[247][248] The actual surveillance operation was performed by French intelligence agencies on behalf of the NSA.[63][249] The cooperation between France and the NSA was confirmed by the Director of the NSA, Keith B. Alexander, who asserted that foreign intelligence services collected phone records in “war zones” and “other areas outside their borders” and provided them to the NSA.[250] The French newspaper Le Monde also disclosed new PRISM and Upstream slides (See Page 4, 7 and 8) coming from the “PRISM/US-984XN Overview” presentation.[251] In Spain, the NSA intercepted the telephone conversations, text messages and emails of millions of Spaniards, and spied on members of the Spanish government.[252] Between December 10, 2012 and January 8, 2013, the NSA collected metadata on 60 million telephone calls in Spain.[253] According to documents leaked by Snowden, the surveillance of Spanish citizens was jointly conducted by the NSA and the intelligence agencies of Spain.[254][255] On October 4, 2013, The Washington Post published a powerpoint presentation leaked by Snowden, showing how the NSA has compromised the Tor encrypted network that is being employed by hundreds of thousands of people to circumvent “nation state internet policies”. By secretly exploiting a JavaScript plug-in, the NSA is able to uncover the identities of various anonymous Internet users such as dissidents, terrorists, and other targets November[edit] The New York Times reported that the NSA carries out an eavesdropping effort, dubbed Operation Dreadnought, against the Iranian leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. During his 2009 visit to Iranian Kurdistan, the agency collaborated with the GCHQ and the U.S.’s National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, collecting radio transmissions between aircraft and airports, examining Khamenei’s convoy with satellite imagery, and enumerating military radar stations. According to the story, an objective of the operation is “communications fingerprinting”: the ability to distinguish Khamenei’s communications from those of other people in Iran.[256] The same story revealed an operation code-named Ironavenger, in which the NSA intercepted e-mails sent between a country allied with the United States and the government of “an adversary”. The ally was conducting a spear-phishing attack: its e-mails contained malware. The NSA gathered documents and login credentials belonging to the enemy country, along with knowledge of the ally’s capabilities for attacking computers.[256] According to the British newspaper The Independent, the British intelligence agency GCHQ maintains a listening post on the roof of the British Embassy in Berlin that is capable of intercepting mobile phone calls, wi-fi data and long-distance communications all over the German capital, including adjacent government buildings such as the Reichstag (seat of the German parliament) and the Chancellery (seat of Germany’s head of government) clustered around the Brandenburg Gate.[257] Operating under the code-name “Quantum Insert”, the GCHQ set up a fake website masquerading as LinkedIn, a social website used for professional networking, as part of its efforts to install surveillance software on the computers of the telecommunications operator Belgacom.[258][259][260] In addition, the headquarters of the oil cartel OPEC were infiltrated by the GCHQ as well as the NSA, which bugged the computers of nine OPEC employees and monitored the General Secretary of OPEC.[258] For more than three years the GCHQ has been using an automated monitoring system code-named “Royal Concierge” to infiltrate the reservation systems of at least 350 upscale hotels in many different parts of the world in order to target, search and analyze reservations to detect diplomats and government officials.[261] First tested in 2010, the aim of the “Royal Concierge” is to track down the travel plans of diplomats, and it is often supplemented with surveillance methods related to human intelligence (HUMINT). Other covert operations include the wiretapping of room telephones and fax machines used in targeted hotels as well as the monitoring of computers hooked up to the hotel network.[261] In November 2013, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and The Guardian revealed that the Australian Signals Directorate (DSD) had attempted to listen to the private phone calls of the president of Indonesia and his wife. The Indonesian foreign minister, Marty Natalegawa, confirmed that he and the president had contacted the ambassador in Canberra. Natalegawa said any tapping of Indonesian politicians’ personal phones “violates every single decent and legal instrument I can think of—national in Indonesia, national in Australia, international as well”.[262] Other high-ranking Indonesian politicians targeted by the DSD include: Boediono[263] (Vice President) Jusuf Kalla[263] (Former Vice President) Dino Patti Djalal[263] (Ambassador to the United States) Andi Mallarangeng[263] (Government spokesperson) Hatta Rajasa[263] (State Secretary) Sri Mulyani Indrawati[263] (Former Finance Minister and current managing director of the World Bank) Widodo Adi Sutjipto[263] (Former Commander-in-Chief of the military) Sofyan Djalil[263] (Senior government advisor) Carrying the title “3G impact and update”, a classified presentation leaked by Snowden revealed the attempts of the ASD/DSD to keep up to pace with the rollout of 3G technology in Indonesia and across Southeast Asia. The ASD/DSD motto placed at the bottom of each page reads: “Reveal their secrets—protect our own.”[263] Under a secret deal approved by British intelligence officials, the NSA has been storing and analyzing the internet and email records of UK citizens since 2007. The NSA also proposed in 2005 a procedure for spying on the citizens of the UK and other Five-Eyes nations alliance, even where the partner government has explicitly denied the U.S. permission to do so. Under the proposal, partner countries must neither be informed about this particular type of surveillance, nor the procedure of doing so.[40] Towards the end of November, The New York Times released an internal NSA report outlining the agency’s efforts to expand its surveillance abilities.[264] The five-page document asserts that the law of the United States has not kept up with the needs of the NSA to conduct mass surveillance in the “golden age” of signals intelligence, but there are grounds for optimism because, in the NSA’s own words: “The culture of compliance, which has allowed the American people to entrust NSA with extraordinary authorities, will not be compromised in the face of so many demands, even as we aggressively pursue legal authorities…”[265] The report, titled “SIGINT Strategy 2012–2016”, also said that the U.S. will try to influence the “global commercial encryption market” through “commercial relationships”, and emphasized the need to “revolutionize” the analysis of its vast data collection to “radically increase operational impact”.[264] On November 23, 2013, the Dutch newspaper NRC Handelsblad reported that the Netherlands was targeted by U.S. intelligence agencies in the immediate aftermath of World War II. This period of surveillance lasted from 1946 to 1968, and also included the interception of the communications of other European countries including Belgium, France, West Germany and Norway.[266] The Dutch Newspaper also reported that NSA infected more than 50,000 computer networks worldwide, often covertly, with malicious spy software, sometimes in cooperation with local authorities, designed to steal sensitive information.[43][267] On November 23, 2013, the Dutch newspaper NRC Handelsblad released a top secret NSA presentation leaked by Snowden, showing five “Classes of Accesses” that the NSA uses in its worldwide signals intelligence operations.[43][267] These five “Classes of Accesses” are: 3rd PARTY/LIAISON—refers to data provided by the international partners of the NSA. Within the framework of the UKUSA Agreement, these international partners are known as “third parties”. REGIONAL—refers to over 80 regional Special Collection Services (SCS). The SCS is a black budget program operated by the NSA and the CIA, with operations based in many cities such as Athens, Bangkok, Berlin, Brasília, Budapest, Frankfurt, Geneva, Lagos, Milan, New Delhi, Paris, Prague, Vienna, and Zagreb, and others, targeting Central America, the Arabian Peninsula, East Asia, and Continental Europe. CNE—an abbreviation for “Computer Network Exploitation”. It is performed by a special cyber-warfare unit of the NSA known as Tailored Access Operations (TAO), which infected over 50,000 computer networks worldwide with malicious software designed to steal sensitive information, and is mostly aimed at Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, and parts of Eastern Europe LARGE CABLE—20 major points of accesses, many of them located within the United States FORNSAT—an abbreviation for “Foreign Satellite Collection”. It refers to intercepts from satellites that process data used by other countries such as Britain, Norway, Japan, and the Philippines December[edit] According to the classified documents leaked by Snowden, the Australian Signals Directorate, formerly known as the Defence Signals Directorate, had offered to share information on Australian citizens with the other intelligence agencies of the UKUSA Agreement. Data shared with foreign countries include “bulk, unselected, unminimised metadata” such as “medical, legal or religious information”.[268] The Washington Post revealed that the NSA has been tracking the locations of mobile phones from all over the world by tapping into the cables that connect mobile networks globally and that serve U.S. cellphones as well as foreign ones. In the process of doing so, the NSA collects more than five billion records of phone locations on a daily basis. This enables NSA analysts to map cellphone owners’ relationships by correlating their patterns of movement over time with thousands or millions of other phone users who cross their paths.[269][270][271][272][273][274][275][276] The Washington Post also reported that both the GCHQ and the NSA make use of location data and advertising tracking files generated through normal internet browsing (with cookies operated by Google, known as “Pref”) to pinpoint targets for government hacking and to bolster surveillance.[277][278][279] The Norwegian Intelligence Service (NIS), which cooperates with the NSA, has gained access to Russian targets in the Kola Peninsula and other civilian targets. In general, the NIS provides information to the NSA about “Politicians”, “Energy” and “Armament”.[280] A top secret memo of the NSA lists the following years as milestones of the Norway-United States of America SIGINT agreement, or NORUS Agreement: 1952 – Informal starting year of cooperation between the NIS and the NSA[281] 1954 – Formalization of the agreement[281] 1963 – Extension of the agreement for coverage of foreign instrumentation signals intelligence (FISINT)[281] 1970 – Extension of the agreement for coverage of electronic intelligence (ELINT)[281] 1994 – Extension of the agreement for coverage of communications intelligence (COMINT)[281] The NSA considers the NIS to be one of its most reliable partners. Both agencies also cooperate to crack the encryption systems of mutual targets. According to the NSA, Norway has made no objections to its requests from the NIS.[281] On December 5, Sveriges Television reported the National Defence Radio Establishment (FRA) has been conducting a clandestine surveillance operation in Sweden, targeting the internal politics of Russia. The operation was conducted on behalf of the NSA, receiving data handed over to it by the FRA.[282][283] The Swedish-American surveillance operation also targeted Russian energy interests as well as the Baltic states.[284] As part of the UKUSA Agreement, a secret treaty was signed in 1954 by Sweden with the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, regarding collaboration and intelligence sharing.[285] As a result of Snowden’s disclosures, the notion of Swedish neutrality in international politics was called into question.[citation needed] In an internal document dating from the year 2006, the NSA acknowledged that its “relationship” with Sweden is “protected at the TOP SECRET level because of that nation’s political neutrality.”[286] Specific details of Sweden’s cooperation with members of the UKUSA Agreement include: The FRA has been granted access to XKeyscore, an analytical database of the NSA.[287] Sweden updated the NSA on changes in Swedish legislation that provided the legal framework for information sharing between the FRA and the Swedish Security Service.[52] Since January 2013, a counterterrorism analyst of the NSA has been stationed in the Swedish capital of Stockholm[52] The NSA, the GCHQ and the FRA signed an agreement in 2004 that allows the FRA to directly collaborate with the NSA without having to consult the GCHQ.[52] About five years later, the Riksdag passed a controversial legislative change, briefly allowing the FRA to monitor both wireless and cable bound signals passing the Swedish border without a court order,[288] while also introducing several provisions designed to protect the privacy of individuals, according to the original proposal.[289] This legislation was amended 11 months later,[290] in an effort to strengthen protection of privacy by making court orders a requirement, and by imposing several limits on the intelligence-gathering.[291][292][293] According to documents leaked by Snowden, the Special Source Operations of the NSA has been sharing information containing “logins, cookies, and GooglePREFID” with the Tailored Access Operations division of the NSA, as well as Britain’s GCHQ agency.[294] During the 2010 G-20 Toronto summit, the U.S. embassy in Ottawa was transformed into a security command post during a six-day spying operation that was conducted by the NSA and closely coordinated with the Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC). The goal of the spying operation was, among others, to obtain information on international development, banking reform, and to counter trade protectionism to support “U.S. policy goals.”[295] On behalf of the NSA, the CSEC has set up covert spying posts in 20 countries around the world.[11] In Italy the Special Collection Service of the NSA maintains two separate surveillance posts in Rome and Milan.[296] According to a secret NSA memo dated September 2010, the Italian embassy in Washington, D.C. has been targeted by two spy operations of the NSA: Under the codename “Bruneau”, which refers to mission “Lifesaver”, the NSA sucks out all the information stored in the embassy’s computers and creates electronic images of hard disk drives.[296] Under the codename “Hemlock”, which refers to mission “Highlands”, the NSA gains access to the embassy’s communications through physical “implants”.[296] Due to concerns that terrorist or criminal networks may be secretly communicating via computer games, the NSA, the GCHQ, the CIA, and the FBI have been conducting surveillance and scooping up data from the networks of many online games, including massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) such as World of Warcraft, as well as virtual worlds such as Second Life, and the Xbox gaming console.[297][298][299][300] The NSA has cracked the most commonly used cellphone encryption technology, A5/1. According to a classified document leaked by Snowden, the agency can “process encrypted A5/1” even when it has not acquired an encryption key.[301] In addition, the NSA uses various types of cellphone infrastructure, such as the links between carrier networks, to determine the location of a cellphone user tracked by Visitor Location Registers.[302] US district court judge for the District of Columbia, Richard Leon, declared[303][304][305][306][307][308] on December 16, 2013, that the mass collection of metadata of Americans’ telephone records by the National Security Agency probably violates the fourth amendment prohibition of unreasonable searches and seizures.[309] Leon granted the request for a preliminary injunction that blocks the collection of phone data for two private plaintiffs (Larry Klayman, a conservative lawyer, and Charles Strange, father of a cryptologist killed in Afghanistan when his helicopter was shot down in 2011)[310] and ordered the government to destroy any of their records that have been gathered. But the judge stayed action on his ruling pending a government appeal, recognizing in his 68-page opinion the “significant national security interests at stake in this case and the novelty of the constitutional issues.”[309] However federal judge William H. Pauley III in New York City ruled[311] the U.S. government’s global telephone data-gathering system is needed to thwart potential terrorist attacks, and that it can only work if everyone’s calls are swept in. U.S. District Judge Pauley also ruled that Congress legally set up the program and that it does not violate anyone’s constitutional rights. The judge also concluded that the telephone data being swept up by NSA did not belong to telephone users, but to the telephone companies. He further ruled that when NSA obtains such data from the telephone companies, and then probes into it to find links between callers and potential terrorists, this further use of the data was not even a search under the Fourth Amendment. He also concluded that the controlling precedent is Smith v. Maryland: “Smith’s bedrock holding is that an individual has no legitimate expectation of privacy in information provided to third parties,” Judge Pauley wrote.[312][313][314][315] The American Civil Liberties Union declared on January 2, 2012 that it will appeal Judge Pauley’s ruling that NSA bulk the phone record collection is legal. “The government has a legitimate interest in tracking the associations of suspected terrorists, but tracking those associations does not require the government to subject every citizen to permanent surveillance,” deputy ACLU legal director Jameel Jaffer said in a statement.[316] In recent years, American and British intelligence agencies conducted surveillance on more than 1,100 targets, including the office of an Israeli prime minister, heads of international aid organizations, foreign energy companies and a European Union official involved in antitrust battles with American technology businesses.[317] A catalog of high-tech gadgets and software developed by the NSA’s Tailored Access Operations (TAO) was leaked by the German news magazine Der Spiegel.[318] Dating from 2008, the catalog revealed the existence of special gadgets modified to capture computer screenshots and USB flash drives secretly fitted with radio transmitters to broadcast stolen data over the airwaves, and fake base stations intended to intercept mobile phone signals, as well as many other secret devices and software implants listed here: Computer implants [show] Server implants and firewall implants [show] Covert listening devices [show] Mobile phone implants and related products [show] The Tailored Access Operations (TAO) division of the NSA intercepted the shipping deliveries of computers and laptops in order to install spyware and physical implants on electronic gadgets. This was done in close cooperation with the FBI and the CIA.[318][319][320][321][322][323][324] NSA officials responded to the Spiegel reports with a statement, which said: “Tailored Access Operations is a unique national asset that is on the front lines of enabling NSA to defend the nation and its allies. [TAO’s] work is centred on computer network exploitation in support of foreign intelligence collection.”[325] In a separate disclosure unrelated to Snowden, the French Trésor public, which runs a certificate authority, was found to have issued fake certificates impersonating Google in order to facilitate spying on French government employees via man-in-the-middle attacks.[326] On December 4, 2013, The Washington Post released an internal NSA chart illustrating the extent of the agency’s mass collection of mobile phone location records, which amounts to about five billion on a daily basis.[269] The records are stored in a huge database known as FASCIA, which received over 27 terabytes of location data within seven months.[327] 2014[edit] January[edit] The NSA is working to build a powerful quantum computer capable of breaking all types of encryption.[328][329][330][331][332] The effort is part of a US$79.7 million research program known as “Penetrating Hard Targets”. It involves extensive research carried out in large, shielded rooms known as Faraday cages, which are designed to prevent electromagnetic radiation from entering or leaving.[329] Currently, the NSA is close to producing basic building blocks that will allow the agency to gain “complete quantum control on two semiconductor qubits”.[329] Once a quantum computer is successfully built, it would enable the NSA to unlock the encryption that protects data held by banks, credit card companies, retailers, brokerages, governments and health care providers.[328] According to the New York Times the NSA is monitoring approximately 100,000 computers worldwide with spy software named Quantum. Quantum enables the NSA to conduct surveillance on those computers on the one hand and can also create a digital highway for launching cyberattacks on the other hand. Among the targets are the Chinese and Russian military, but also trade institutions within the European Union. The NYT also reported that the NSA can access and alter computers which are not connected with the internet by a secret technology in use by the NSA since 2008. The prerequisite is the physical insertion of the radio frequency hardware by a spy, a manufacturer or an unwitting user. The technology relies on a covert channel of radio waves that can be transmitted from tiny circuit boards and USB cards inserted surreptitiously into the computers. In some cases, they are sent to a briefcase-size relay station that intelligence agencies can set up miles away from the target. The technology can also transmit malware back to the infected computer.[43] Channel 4 and The Guardian revealed the existence of Dishfire, a massive database of the NSA that collects hundreds of millions of text messages on a daily basis.[333] The GCHQ has been given full access to the database, which it uses to obtain personal information of Britons by exploiting a legal loophole.[334] Each day, the database receives and stores the following amounts of data: Geolocation data of more than 76,000 text messages and other travel information[335] Over 110,000 names, gathered from electronic business cards[335] Over 800,000 financial transactions that are either gathered from text-to-text payments or by linking credit cards to phone users[335] Details of 1.6 million border crossings based on the interception of network roaming alerts[335] Over 5 million missed call alerts[335] About 200 million text messages from around the world[333] The database is supplemented with an analytical tool known as the Prefer program, which processes SMS messages to extract other types of information including contacts from missed call alerts.[335] The Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board report on mass surveillance was released on January 23, 2014. It recommends to end the bulk telephone metadata i.e. bulk phone records – phone numbers dialed, call times and durations, but not call content collection – collection program, to create a “Special Advocate” to be involved in some cases before the FISA court judge and to release future and past FISC decisions “that involve novel interpretations of FISA or other significant questions of law, technology or compliance.”[336][337][338] According to a joint disclosure by The New York Times, The Guardian, and ProPublica,[339][340][341][342][343] the NSA and the GCHQ have begun working together to collect and store data from dozens of smartphone application software by 2007 at the latest. A 2008 GCHQ report leaked by Snowden asserts that “anyone using Google Maps on a smartphone is working in support of a GCHQ system”. The NSA and the GCHQ have traded recipes for various purposes such as grabbing location data and journey plans that are made when a target uses Google Maps, and vacuuming up address books, buddy lists, phone logs and geographic data embedded in photos posted on the mobile versions of numerous social networks such as Facebook, Flickr, LinkedIn, Twitter and other services. In a separate 20-page report dated 2012, the GCHQ cited the popular smartphone game “Angry Birds” as an example of how an application could be used to extract user data. Taken together, such forms of data collection would allow the agencies to collect vital information about a user’s life, including his or her home country, current location (through geolocation), age, gender, ZIP code, marital status, income, ethnicity, sexual orientation, education level, number of children, etc.[344][345] A GCHQ document dated August 2012 provided details of the Squeaky Dolphin surveillance program, which enables the GCHQ to conduct broad, real-time monitoring of various social media features and social media traffic such as YouTube video views, the Like button on Facebook, and Blogspot/Blogger visits without the knowledge or consent of the companies providing those social media features. The agency’s “Squeaky Dolphin” program can collect, analyze and utilize YouTube, Facebook and Blogger data in specific situations in real time for analysis purposes. The program also collects the addresses from the billions of videos watched daily as well as some user information for analysis purposes.[186][346][347] During the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, the NSA and its Five Eyes partners monitored the communications of delegates of numerous countries. This was done to give their own policymakers a negotiating advantage.[348][349] The Communications Security Establishment Canada (CSEC) has been tracking Canadian air passengers via free Wi-Fi services at a major Canadian airport. Passengers who exited the airport terminal continued to be tracked as they showed up at other Wi-Fi locations across Canada. In a CSEC document dated May 2012, the agency described how it had gained access to two communications systems with over 300,000 users in order to pinpoint a specific imaginary target. The operation was executed on behalf of the NSA as a trial run to test a new technology capable of tracking down “any target that makes occasional forays into other cities/regions.” This technology was subsequently shared with Canada’s Five Eyes partners – Australia, New Zealand, Britain, and the United States.[350][351][352][353] On January 27, 2014, The New York Times released[341] an internal NSA document from a 2010 meeting that details the extent of the agency’s surveillance on smartphones. Data collected include phone settings, network connections, Web browsing history, buddy lists, downloaded documents, encyrption usage, and user agents. Notice the following line of text at the bottom – “TOP SECRET//COMINT//REL TO USA, FVEY” – which is used to indicated that this top secret document is related to communications intelligence (COMINT), and can be accessed by the USA and its Five Eyes (FVEY) partners in Australia, Britain, Canada, and New Zealand February[edit] According to research by Süddeutsche Zeitung and TV network NDR the mobile phone of former German chancellor Gerhard Schröder was monitored from 2002 onwards, reportedly because of his government’s opposition to military intervention in Iraq. The source of the latest information is a document leaked by Edward Snowden. The document, containing information about the National Sigint Requirement List (NSRL), had previously been interpreted as referring only to Angela Merkel’s mobile. However Süddeutsche Zeitung and NDR claim to have confirmation from NSA insiders that the surveillance authorisation pertains not to the individual, but the political post – which in 2002 was still held by Schröder. According to research by the two media outlets, Schröder was placed as number 388 on the list, which contains the names of persons and institutions to be put under surveillance by the NSA.[354][355][356][357] The GCHQ launched a cyber-attack on the activist network “Anonymous”, using denial-of-service attack (DoS) to shut down a chatroom frequented by the network’s members and to spy on them. The attack, dubbed Rolling Thunder, was conducted by a GCHQ unit known as the Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group (JTRIG). The unit successfully uncovered the true identities of several Anonymous members.[358][359][360][361] The NSA Section 215 bulk telephony metadata program which seeks to stockpile records on all calls made in the U.S. is collecting less than 30 percent of all Americans’ call records because of an inability to keep pace with the explosion in cellphone use according to the Washington Post. The controversial program permits the NSA after a warrant granted by the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court to record numbers, length and location of every call from the participating carriers.[362][363] The Intercept reported that the U.S. government is using primarily NSA surveillance to target people for drone strikes overseas. In its report The Intercept author detail the flawed methods which are used to locate targets for lethal drone strikes, resulting in the deaths of innocent people.[364] According to the Washington Post NSA analysts and collectors i.e. NSA personnel which controls electronic surveillance equipment use the NSA’s sophisticated surveillance capabilities to track individual targets geographically and in real time, while drones and tactical units aimed their weaponry against those targets to take them out.[365] An unnamed US law firm, reported to be Mayer Brown, was targeted by Australia’s ASD. According to Snowden’s documents, the ASD had offered to hand over these intercepted communications to the NSA. This allowed government authorities to be “able to continue to cover the talks, providing highly useful intelligence for interested US customers”.[366][367] NSA and GCHQ documents revealed that the anti-secrecy organization WikiLeaks and other activist groups were targeted for government surveillance and criminal prosecution. In particular, the IP addresses of visitors to WikiLeaks were collected in real time, and the U.S. government urged its allies to file criminal charges against the founder of WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, due to his organization’s publication of the Afghanistan war logs. The WikiLeaks organization was designated as a “malicious foreign actor”.[368] Quoting an unnamed NSA official in Germany, Bild am Sonntag reported that whilst President Obama’s order to stop spying on Merkel was being obeyed, the focus had shifted to bugging other leading government and business figures including Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere, a close confidant of Merkel. Caitlin Hayden, a security adviser to President Obama, was quoted in the newspaper report as saying, “The US has made clear it gathers intelligence in exactly the same way as any other states.”[369][370] The Intercept reveals that government agencies are infiltrating online communities and engaging in “false flag operations” to discredit targets among them people who have nothing to do with terrorism or national security threats. The two main tactics that are currently used are the injection all sorts of false material onto the internet in order to destroy the reputation of its targets; and the use of social sciences and other techniques to manipulate online discourse and activism to generate outcomes it considers desirable.[371][372][373][374] The Guardian reported that Britain’s surveillance agency GCHQ, with aid from the National Security Agency, intercepted and stored the webcam images of millions of internet users not suspected of wrongdoing. The surveillance program codenamed Optic Nerve collected still images of Yahoo webcam chats (one image every five minutes) in bulk and saved them to agency databases. The agency discovered “that a surprising number of people use webcam conversations to show intimate parts of their body to the other person”, estimating that between 3% and 11% of the Yahoo webcam imagery harvested by GCHQ contains “undesirable nudity”.[375] March[edit] The NSA has built an infrastructure which enables it to covertly hack into computers on a mass scale by using automated systems that reduce the level of human oversight in the process. The NSA relies on an automated system codenamed TURBINE which in essence enables the automated management and control of a large network of implants (a form of remotely transmitted malware on selected individual computer devices or en bulk on tens of thousands of devices). As quoted by The Intercept, TURBINE is designed to “allow the current implant network to scale to large size (millions of implants) by creating a system that does automated control implants by groups instead of individually.”[376] The NSA has shared many of its files on the use of implants with its counterparts in the so-called Five Eyes surveillance alliance – the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. Among other things due to TURBINE and its control over the implants the NSA is capable of: breaking into targeted computers and to siphoning out data from foreign Internet and phone networks infecting a target’s computer and exfiltrating files from a hard drive covertly recording audio from a computer’s microphone and taking snapshots with its webcam launching cyberattacks by corrupting and disrupting file downloads or denying access to websites exfiltrating data from removable flash drives that connect to an infected computer The TURBINE implants are linked to, and relies upon, a large network of clandestine surveillance “sensors” that the NSA has installed at locations across the world including the agency’s headquarters in Maryland and eavesdropping bases used by the agency in Misawa, Japan and Menwith Hill, England. Codenamed as TURMOIL the sensors operate as a sort of high-tech surveillance dragnet, monitoring packets of data as they are sent across the Internet. When TURBINE implants exfiltrate data from infected computer systems, the TURMOIL sensors automatically identify the data and return it to the NSA for analysis. And when targets are communicating, the TURMOIL system can be used to send alerts or “tips” to TURBINE, enabling the initiation of a malware attack. To identify surveillance targets the NSA uses a series of data “selectors” as they flow across Internet cables. These selectors can include email addresses, IP addresses, or the unique “cookies” containing a username or other identifying information that are sent to a user’s computer by websites such as Google, Facebook, Hotmail, Yahoo, and Twitter, unique Google advertising cookies that track browsing habits, unique encryption key fingerprints that can be traced to a specific user, and computer IDs that are sent across the Internet when a Windows computer crashes or updates.[376][377][378][379][380][381][382][383][384][385][386][387][388][389][390][391] The CIA was accused by U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee Chairwoman Dianne Feinstein of spying on a stand-alone computer network established for the committee in its investigation of allegations of CIA abuse in a George W. Bush-era detention and interrogation program.[392] A voice interception program codenamed MYSTIC began in 2009. Along with RETRO, short for “retrospective retrieval” (RETRO is voice audio recording buffer that allows retrieval of captured content up to 30 days into the past), the MYSTIC program is capable of recording “100 percent” of a foreign country’s telephone calls, enabling the NSA to rewind and review conversations up to 30 days and the relating metadata. With the capability to store up to 30 days of recorded conversations MYSTIC enables the NSA to pull an instant history of the person’s movements, associates and plans.[393][394][395][396][397][398] On March 21, Le Monde published slides from an internal presentation of the Communications Security Establishment Canada, which attributed a piece of malicious software to French intelligence. The CSEC presentation concluded that the list of malware victims matched French intelligence priorities and found French cultural reference in the malware’s code, including the name Babar, a popular French children’s character, and the developer name “Titi”.[399] The French telecommunications corporation Orange S.A. shares its call data with the French intelligence agency DGSE, which hands over the intercepted data to GCHQ.[400] The NSA has spied on the Chinese technology company Huawei.[401][402][403] Huawei is a leading manufacturer of smartphones, tablets, mobile phone infrastructure, and WLAN routers and installs fiber optic cable. According to Der Spiegel this “kind of technology […] is decisive in the NSA’s battle for data supremacy.”[404] The NSA, in an operation named “Shotgiant”, was able to access Huawei’s email archive and the source code for Huawei’s communications products.[404] The US government has had longstanding concerns that Huawei may not be independent of the People’s Liberation Army and that the Chinese government might use equipment manufactured by Huawei to conduct cyberespionage or cyberwarfare. The goals of the NSA operation were to assess the relationship between Huawei and the PLA, to learn more the Chinese government’s plans and to use information from Huawei to spy on Huawei’s customers, including Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Kenya, and Cuba. Former Chinese President Hu Jintao, the Chinese Trade Ministry, banks, as well as telecommunications companies were also targeted by the NSA.[401][404] The Intercept published a document of an NSA employee discussing how to build a database of IP addresses, webmail, and Facebook accounts associated with system administrators so that the NSA can gain access to the networks and systems they administer.[405][406] At the end of March 2014, Der Spiegel and The Intercept, published, based on a series of classified files from the archive provided to reporters by NSA whistleblower Edward Snowden, articles related to espionage efforts by the GCHQ and NSA in Germany.[407][408] The British GCHQ targeted three German internet firms for information about Internet traffic passing through internet exchange points, important customers of the German internet providers, their technology suppliers as well as future technical trends in their business sector and company employees.[407][408] The NSA was granted by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court the authority for blanket surveillance of Germany, its people and institutions, regardless whether those affected are suspected of having committed an offense or not, without an individualized court order specifying on March 7, 2013.[408] In addition Germany’s chancellor Angela Merkel was listed in a surveillance search machine and database named Nymrod alongside with 121 others foreign leaders.[407][408] As The Intercept wrote: “The NSA uses the Nymrod system to “find information relating to targets that would otherwise be tough to track down,” according to internal NSA documents. Nymrod sifts through secret reports based on intercepted communications as well as full transcripts of faxes, phone calls, and communications collected from computer systems. More than 300 “cites” for Merkel are listed as available in intelligence reports and transcripts for NSA operatives to read.”[407] April[edit] Towards the end of April, Edward Snowden said that the United States surveillance agencies spy on Americans more than anyone else in the world, contrary to anything that has been said by the government up until this point.[409] May[edit] An article published by Ars Technica shows NSA’s Tailored Access Operations (TAO) employees intercepting a Cisco router.[410] The Intercept and Wikileaks revealed information about which countries were having their communications collected as part of the MYSTIC surveillance program. On May 19, The Intercept reported that the NSA is recording and archiving nearly every cell phone conversation in the Bahamas with a system called SOMALGET, a subprogram of MYSTIC. The mass surveillance has been occurring without the Bahamian government’s permission.[411] Aside from the Bahamas, The Intercept reported NSA interception of cell phone metadata in Kenya, the Phillipines, Mexico and a fifth country it did not name due to “credible concerns that doing so could lead to increased violence.” WikiLeaks released a statement on May 23 claiming that Afghanistan was the unnamed nation.[412] In a statement responding to the revelations, the NSA said “the implication that NSA’s foreign intelligence collection is arbitrary and unconstrained is false.”[411] Through its global surveillance operations the NSA exploits the flood of images included in emails, text messages, social media, videoconferences and other communications to harvest millions of images. These images are then used by the NSA in sophisticated facial recognition programs to track suspected terrorists and other intelligence targets.[413] June[edit] Vodafone revealed that there were secret wires that allowed government agencies direct access to their networks.[414] This access does not require warrants and the direct access wire is often equipment in a locked room.[414] In six countries where Vodafone operates, the law requires telecommunication companies to install such access or allows governments to do so.[414] Vodafone did not name these countries in case some governments retaliated by imprisoning their staff.[414] Shami Chakrabarti of Liberty said “For governments to access phone calls at the flick of a switch is unprecedented and terrifying. Snowden revealed the internet was already treated as fair game. Bluster that all is well is wearing pretty thin – our analogue laws need a digital overhaul.”[414] Vodafone published its first Law Enforcement Disclosure Report on 6 June 2014.[414] Vodafone group privacy officer Stephen Deadman said “These pipes exist, the direct access model exists. We are making a call to end direct access as a means of government agencies obtaining people’s communication data. Without an official warrant, there is no external visibility. If we receive a demand we can push back against the agency. The fact that a government has to issue a piece of paper is an important constraint on how powers are used.”[414] Gus Hosein, director of Privacy International said “I never thought the telcos would be so complicit. It’s a brave step by Vodafone and hopefully the other telcos will become more brave with disclosure, but what we need is for them to be braver about fighting back against the illegal requests and the laws themselves.”[414] Above-top-secret documentation of a covert surveillance program named Overseas Processing Centre 1 (OPC-1) (codenamed “CIRCUIT”) by GCHQ was published by The Register. Based on documents leaked by Edward Snowden, GCHQ taps into undersea fiber optic cables via secret spy bases near the Strait of Hormuz and Yemen. BT and Vodaphone are implicated.[415] The Danish newspaper Dagbladet Information and The Intercept revealed on June 19, 2014 the NSA mass surveillance program codenamed RAMPART-A. Under RAMPART-A, ‘third party’ countries tap into fiber optic cables carrying the majority of the world’s electronic communications and are secretly allowing the NSA to install surveillance equipment on these fiber-optic cables. The foreign partners of the NSA turn massive amounts of data like the content of phone calls, faxes, e-mails, internet chats, data from virtual private networks, and calls made using Voice over IP software like Skype over to the NSA. In return these partners receive access to the NSA’s sophisticated surveillance equipment so that they too can spy on the mass of data that flows in and out of their territory. Among the partners participating in the NSA mass surveillance program are Denmark and Germany.[416][417][418] July[edit] During the week of July 4, a 31-year-old male employee of Germany’s intelligence service BND was arrested on suspicion of spying for the United States. The employee is suspected of spying on a German parliamentary committee investigating U.S. espionage.[419] Former NSA official and whistleblower William Binney spoke at a Centre for Investigative Journalism conference in London. According to Binney, “at least 80% of all audio calls, not just metadata, are recorded and stored in the US. The NSA lies about what it stores.” He also stated that the majority of fiber optic cables run through the U.S., which “is no accident and allows the US to view all communication coming in.”[420] The Washington Post released a review of a cache provided by Snowden containing roughly 160,000 text messages and e-mails intercepted by the NSA between 2009 and 2012. The newspaper concluded that nine out of ten account holders whose conversations were recorded by the agency “were not the intended surveillance targets but were caught in a net the agency had cast for somebody else.” In its analysis, The Post also noted that many of the account holders were Americans.[421] On July 9, a soldier working within Germany’s Federal Ministry of Defence (BMVg) fell under suspicion of spying for the United States.[422] As a result of the July 4 case and this one, the German government expelled the CIA station chief in Germany on July 17.[423] On July 18, former State Department official John Tye released an editorial in The Washington Post, highlighting concerns over data collection under Executive Order 12333. Tye’s concerns are rooted in classified material he had access to through the State Department, though he has not publicly released any classified materials.[424] Reaction[edit] Main article: Reactions to global surveillance disclosures Reactions of citizens[edit] The disclosure provided impetus for the creation of social movements against mass surveillance, such as Restore the Fourth, and actions like Stop Watching Us and The Day We Fight Back. On the legal front, the Electronic Frontier Foundation joined a coalition of diverse groups filing suit against the NSA. Several human rights organizations have urged the Obama administration not to prosecute, but protect, “whistleblower Snowden”: Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, Transparency International, and the Index on Censorship, inter alia.[425][426][427][428] Reactions of political leaders[edit] United States On June 7, 2013, President Obama emphasized the importance of surveillance to prevent terrorist attacks Domestically, President Barack Obama reassured the public that there is “no spying on Americans”,[429][430] and White House Press Secretary Jay Carney asserted that the surveillance programs revealed by Snowden have been authorized by Congress.[431] On the international front, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder reassured foreigners that “we cannot target even foreign persons overseas without a valid foreign intelligence purpose.”[432] United Kingdom Prime Minister David Cameron warned journalists that “if they don’t demonstrate some social responsibility it will be very difficult for government to stand back and not to act.”[433] Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg emphasized that the media should “absolutely defend the principle of secrecy for the intelligence agencies”.[434] Foreign Secretary William Hague reassured the public that “we take great care to balance individual privacy with our duty to safeguard the public and UK national security.”[435] Hague defended the Five Eyes alliance and reiterated that the British-U.S. intelligence relationship must not be endangered because it “saved many lives”.[436] Australia Prime Minister Tony Abbott reassured the public that “every Australian governmental agency, every Australian official at home and abroad, operates in accordance with the law”.[437] Abbott criticized the Australian Broadcasting Corporation for being unpatriotic due to its reporting on the documents provided by Snowden, whom Abbott described as a “traitor”.[438][439] Foreign Minister Julie Bishop denounced Snowden as a traitor and accused him of “unprecedented” treachery.[440] Bishop defended the Five Eyes alliance and reiterated that the Australian-U.S. intelligence relationship must not be endangered because it “saves lives”.[441] Germany Demonstration “Stop Watching Us”, Berlin, July 2013 In July 2013, Chancellor Angela Merkel defended the surveillance practices of the NSA, and described the United States as “our truest ally throughout the decades”.[442][443] After the NSA’s surveillance on Merkel was revealed, however, the Chancellor compared the NSA with the Stasi.[444] According to The Guardian, Berlin is using the controversy over NSA spying as leverage to enter the exclusive Five Eyes alliance.[445] Interior Minister Hans-Peter Friedrich reassured the public that “the Americans take our data privacy concerns seriously.”[446] Testifying before the German Parliament, Friedrich defended the NSA’s surveillance, and cited five terrorist plots on German soil that were prevented because of the NSA.[447] However, in April 2014, another German interior minister criticized the United States for failing to provide sufficient assurances to Germany that it had reined in its spying tactics. Thomas de Maiziere, a close ally of Merkel, told Der Spiegel: “U.S. intelligence methods may be justified to a large extent by security needs, but the tactics are excessive and over-the-top.” [448] Sweden Minister for Foreign Affairs Carl Bildt, defended the FRA and described its surveillance practices as a “national necessity”.[449] Minister for Defence Karin Enström said that Sweden’s intelligence exchange with other countries is “critical for our security” and that “intelligence operations occur within a framework with clear legislation, strict controls and under parliamentary oversight.”[450][451] The Netherlands Interior Minister Ronald Plasterk apologized for incorrectly claiming that the NSA had collected 1.8 million records of metadata in the Netherlands. Plasterk acknowledged that it was in fact Dutch intelligence services who collected the records and transferred them to the NSA.[452][453] Denmark The Danish Prime Minister Helle Thorning Schmidt has praised the American intelligence agencies, claiming they have prevented terrorist attacks in Denmark, and expressed her personal belief that the Danish people “should be grateful” for the Americans’ surveillance.[454] She has later claimed that the Danish authorities have no basis for assuming that American intelligence agencies have performed illegal spying activities towards Denmark or Danish interests.[455] Review of intelligence agencies[edit] Germany In July 2013, the German government announced an extensive review of Germany’s intelligence services.[456][457] United States In August 2013, the U.S. government announced an extensive review of U.S. intelligence services.[458][459] United Kingdom In October 2013, the British government announced an extensive review of British intelligence services.[460] Canada In December 2013, the Canadian government announced an extensive review of Canada’s intelligence services.[461] Criticism[edit] In January 2014 U.S. President Barack Obama said that “the sensational way in which these disclosures have come out has often shed more heat than light”[24] and critics such as Sean Wilentz claimed that “the NSA has acted far more responsibly than the claims made by the leakers and publicized by the press.” In Wilentz’ view “The leakers have gone far beyond justifiably blowing the whistle on abusive programs. In addition to their alarmism about [U.S.] domestic surveillance, many of the Snowden documents released thus far have had nothing whatsoever to do with domestic surveillance.”[25] Edward Lucas, former Moscow bureau chief for The Economist, agreed, asserting that “Snowden’s revelations neatly and suspiciously fits the interests of one country: Russia” and citing Masha Gessen’s statement that “The Russian propaganda machine has not gotten this much mileage out of a US citizen since Angela Davis’s murder trial in 1971.”[462] Bob Cesca objected to The New York Times failing to redact the name of an NSA employee and the specific location where an al Qaeda group was being targeted in a series of slides the paper made publicly available.[463] Russian journalist Andrei Soldatov argued that Snowden’s revelations had had negative consequences for internet freedom in Russia, as Russian authorities increased their own surveillance on and regulation of the use of U.S. based services such as Google and Facebook on the pretext of protecting the privacy of Russian users. Soldatov said that as a result of the disclosures, international support for having national governments take over the powers of the organizations involved in coordinating the Internet’s global architectures had grown, which could lead to a Balkanization of the Internet that restricted free access to information.[464] The Montevideo Statement on the Future of Internet Cooperation issued in October 2013 by ICANN and other organizations warned against “Internet fragmentation at a national level” and expressed “strong concern over the undermining of the trust and confidence of Internet users globally due to recent revelations”.[465] Gallery[edit] International relations[show] U.S. domestic federal documents[show] NSA presentations[show] Exceptionally Controlled Information[edit] According to The Guardian, Exceptionally Controlled Information (ECI) refers to a classification level higher than Snowden’s top secret documents.[466] Documents classified as ECI contain the actual identities of the following NSA commercial partners operating the global surveillance network: Artifice, Lithium and Serenade.[466] The name of a commercial NSA partner facility known as Steelknight is classified ECI and therefore not revealed in Snowden’s documents.[466] Comparison with previous leaks[edit] Year Disclosure Size Main source(s) Major publisher(s) 2013 Global surveillance disclosure 1.7 million documents[4] Edward Snowden The Guardian, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Der Spiegel, El País, Le Monde, L’espresso, O Globo, ProPublica, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, NRC Handelsblad, Sveriges Television 2010 U.S. Army and U.S. State Department documents 734,885 files Chelsea Manning The Guardian, The New York Times. Der Spiegel, Le Monde, El País, WikiLeaks The material consisted of: 1 Collateral Murder video[467] 91,000 Afghan War diary[468] 391,832 Iraq War logs[469] 251,287 Secret US Embassy Cables[470] 765 Gitmo Detainee Assessment Briefs[471] 1971 Pentagon Papers 4,100 pages Daniel Ellsberg The New York Times See also[edit] Pentagon Papers Room 641A United States diplomatic cables leak References[edit] Jump up ^ Barton Gellman (December 24, 2013). “Edward Snowden, after months of NSA revelations, says his mission’s accomplished”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 25, 2013. “Taken together, the revelations have brought to light a global surveillance system…” ^ Jump up to: a b “Who holds security clearances?”. The Washington Post. June 10, 2013. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Jump up ^ Greenwald, Glenn. “NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily”. The Guardian. Retrieved August 16, 2013. “Exclusive: Top secret court order requiring Verizon to hand over all call data shows scale of domestic surveillance under Obama” ^ Jump up to: a b “Pentagon Says Snowden Took Most U.S. Secrets Ever: Rogers”. Bloomberg. Retrieved January 9, 2014. “The Pentagon concluded that Edward Snowden committed the biggest theft of U.S. secrets in history, downloading about 1.7 million intelligence files, including information that could put personnel in jeopardy, according to lawmakers.” Jump up ^ “NSA Primary Sources”. Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved December 14, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Hubert Gude, Laura Poitras and Marcel Rosenbach (August 5, 2013). “German intelligence Sends Massive Amounts of Data to the NSA”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved December 14, 2013. Jump up ^ Gunnar Rensfeldt. “NSA “asking for” specific exchanges from FRA – Secret treaty since 1954″. Sveriges Television. Retrieved December 14, 2013. “This document, dated April 18th of this year, clearly shows that the relation is very close indeed, seemingly growing even closer. ‘NSA’s relationship with the FRA, an extremely competent, technically innovative, and trusted Third Party partner, continues to grow. The FRA provided NSA with access to its cable collection in 2011′” ^ Jump up to: a b c Glenn Greenwald, Laura Poitras and Ewen MacAskill (September 11, 2013). “NSA shares raw intelligence including Americans’ data with Israel”. The Guardian. Retrieved September 14, 2013. Jump up ^ Tim Leslie and Mark Corcoran. “Explained: Australia’s involvement with the NSA, the US spy agency at heart of global scandal”. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Julian Borger. “GCHQ and European spy agencies worked together on mass surveillance”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 18, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Greg Weston, Glenn Greenwald, Ryan Gallagher. “Snowden document shows Canada set up spy posts for NSA”. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 13, 2013. Jump up ^ “Denmark is one of the NSA’s ‘9-Eyes'”. The Copenhagen Post. Retrieved December 18, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Jacques Follorou. “La France, précieux partenaire de l’espionnage de la NSA” (in French). Le Monde. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Christian Fuchs, John Goetz und Frederik Obermaier. “Verfassungsschutz beliefert NSA” (in German). Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Kjetil Malkenes Hovland. “Norway Monitored Phone Traffic and Shared Data With NSA”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ U.S. vs. Edward J. Snowden criminal complaint. The Washington Post. Jump up ^ Herszenhorn, David M. (July 16, 2013). “Leaker Files for Asylum to Remain in Russia”. The New York Times. Retrieved December 16, 2013. Jump up ^ “Snowden Asylum Hits U.S.-Russia Relations”. The Wall Street Journal. August 1, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013. Jump up ^ “.S. ‘Extremely Disappointed’ At Russia’s Asylum For Snowden”. NPR. August 1, 2013. Retrieved December 16, 2013. Jump up ^ Henderson. “Obama To Leno: ‘There Is No Spying On Americans'”. NPR. Retrieved August 16, 2013. Jump up ^ Francis Elliott. “Cameron hints at action to stop security leaks”. The Times. Retrieved November 13, 2013. Jump up ^ RAPHAEL SATTER. “UK Pursuing Criminal Investigation into NSA Leaks”. ABC News. Retrieved November 13, 2013. Jump up ^ “Only 1% of Snowden files published – Guardian editor”. BBC. December 3, 2013. Retrieved December 29, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Transcript Of President Obama’s Speech On NSA Reforms NPR January 17, 2014 ^ Jump up to: a b Sean Wilentz (January 19, 2014), Would You Feel Differently About Snowden, Greenwald, and Assange If You Knew What They Really Thought? The New Republic ^ Jump up to: a b c Chris Strohm and Del Quentin Wilber (January 10, 2014). “Pentagon Says Snowden Took Most U.S. Secrets Ever: Rogers”. Bloomberg News. Retrieved February 1, 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b “Snowden leaks ‘worst ever loss to British intelligence'”. BBC. October 11, 2013. Retrieved February 4, 2014. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman (December 24, 2013). “Edward Snowden, after months of NSA revelations, says his mission’s accomplished”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 25, 2013. “Taken together, the revelations have brought to light a global surveillance system that cast off many of its historical restraints after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. Secret legal authorities empowered the NSA to sweep in the telephone, Internet and location records of whole populations.” ^ Jump up to: a b Chan, Edwin (July 11, 2013). “Microsoft helped NSA, FBI access user info: Guardian”. Reuters. Retrieved December 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Andy Greenberg (6/05/2013). “NSA’s Verizon Spying Order Specifically Targeted Americans, Not Foreigners”. Forbes. Retrieved December 25, 2013. “In a top secret order obtained by the Guardian newspaper and published Wednesday evening, the FBI on the NSA’s behalf demanded that Verizon turn over all metadata for phone records originating in the United States for the three months beginning in late April and ending on the 19th of July.” Jump up ^ “Report: NSA and CIA collaborate on drone strikes”. Associated Press. October 17, 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Doug Gross (December 10, 2013). “Leak: Government spies snooped in ‘Warcraft,’ other games”. CNN. Retrieved December 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Craig Timberg and Barton Gellman (September 3, 2013). “NSA paying U.S. companies for access to communications networks”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Michael Winter (August 23, 2013). “NSA reimbursed tech firms millions for data”. USA Today. Retrieved December 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Brian Fung. “The NSA paid Silicon Valley millions to spy on taxpayers”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Rob Williams (August 2, 2013). “Americans pay GCHQ £100m to spy for them, leaked NSA papers from Edward Snowden claim”. London: The Independent. Retrieved December 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Kiran Stacey (August 1, 2013). “US paid GCHQ £100m for UK intelligence, say leaked documents”. Financial Times. Retrieved December 25, 2013. Jump up ^ “Espionnage: les services secrets français précieux partenaires de la NSA américaine” (in French). Radio France Internationale. Retrieved November 30, 2013. Jump up ^ “SPIEGEL Reveals Cooperation Between NSA and German BND”. Der Spiegel. July 8, 2013. Retrieved December 25, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Ball, James (November 20, 2013). “US and UK struck secret deal to allow NSA to ‘unmask’ Britons’ personal data”. The Guardian. Retrieved November 21, 2013. Jump up ^ Philip Dorling (September 12, 2013). “US shares raw intelligence on Australians with Israel”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved December 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Ewen MacAskill, James Ball and Katharine Murphy (December 2, 2013). “Revealed: Australian spy agency offered to share data about ordinary citizens”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 25, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c d David E.Sanger and Thom Shanker (January 14, 2014). “N.S.A. Devises Radio Pathway into Computers”. The New York Times. Retrieved January 15, 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b c Cameron Stewart and Paul Maley (December 5, 2013). “Edward Snowden stole up to 20,000 Aussie files”. The Australian. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Philip Dorling (June 13, 2013). “Australia gets ‘deluge’ of US secret data, prompting a new data facility”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved December 22, 2013. Jump up ^ Nick Hopkins (June 7, 2013). “UK gathering secret intelligence via covert NSA operation”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 22, 2013. Jump up ^ Olmer, Bart. “Ook AIVD bespiedt internetter” (in Dutch). De Telegraaf. Retrieved September 10, 2013. “Niet alleen Amerikaanse inlichtingendiensten monitoren internetters wereldwijd. Ook Nederlandse geheime diensten krijgen informatie uit het omstreden surveillanceprogramma ‘Prism’.” ^ Jump up to: a b c Glenn Greenwald, Ewen MacAskill, Laura Poitras, Spencer Ackerman and Dominic Rushe (July 11, 2013). “Revealed: how Microsoft handed the NSA access to encrypted messages”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved July 11, 2013. Jump up ^ Brandon Griggs (July 13, 2013). “Report: Microsoft collaborated closely with NSA”. CNN. Retrieved December 25, 2013. “And Microsoft also worked with the FBI this year to give the NSA easier access to its cloud storage service SkyDrive” ^ Jump up to: a b c René Pfister, Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach, Jörg Schindler and Holger Stark. “German Intelligence Worked Closely with NSA on Data Surveillance”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved December 22, 2013. Jump up ^ Gunnar Rensfeldt. “FRA has access to controversial surveillance system”. Sveriges Television. Retrieved December 12, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Gunnar Rensfeldt. “Read the Snowden Documents From the NSA”. Sveriges Television. Retrieved December 12, 2013. Jump up ^ Nick Hopkins and Julian Borger (August 1, 2013). “Exclusive: NSA pays £100m in secret funding for GCHQ”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 22, 2013. Jump up ^ Rob Williams (August 2, 2013). “Americans pay GCHQ £100m to spy for them, leaked NSA papers from Edward Snowden claim”. London: The Independent. Retrieved December 31, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n James Ball, Luke Harding and Juliette Garside. “BT and Vodafone among telecoms companies passing details to GCHQ”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 22, 2013. Jump up ^ Gellman, Barton; Soltani, Ashkan; Peterson, Andrea (November 4, 2013). “How we know the NSA had access to internal Google and Yahoo cloud data”. The Washington Post. Retrieved November 5, 2013. Jump up ^ Matthias Gebauer, Hubert Gude, Veit Medick, Jörg Schindler and Fidelius Schmid. “CIA Worked With BND and BfV in Neuss on Secret Project”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved December 20, 2013. Jump up ^ Philip Dorling (October 31, 2013). “Exposed: Australia’s Asia spy network”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved December 23, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c d “Photo Gallery: Spies in the Embassy”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved December 22, 2013. Jump up ^ Colin Freeze (October 29, 2013). “Canadian embassies eavesdrop, leak says”. Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved December 23, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Duncan Campbell , Cahal Milmo , Kim Sengupta , Nigel Morris , Tony Patterson (November 5, 2013). “Revealed: Britain’s ‘secret listening post in the heart of Berlin'”. London: The Independent. Retrieved December 22, 2013. Jump up ^ Duncan Campbell and Cahal Milmo (November 5, 2013). “Exclusive: RAF Croughton base ‘sent secrets from Merkel’s phone straight to the CIA'”. The Independent (London). Retrieved December 25, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Jacques Follorou (October 30, 2013). “Surveillance : la DGSE a transmis des données à la NSA américaine” (in French). Le Monde. Retrieved December 30, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Espionnage : la France aurait collaboré avec la NSA”. Le Parisien. October 29, 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2013. Jump up ^ “David Miranda row: Seized files ‘endanger agents'”. BBC. August 30, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Corera, Gordon (October 29, 2013). “Spying scandal: Will the ‘five eyes’ club open up?”. BBC. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Risen, James (October 17, 2013). “Snowden Says He Took No Secret Files to Russia”. The New York Times. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Timothy Heritage and Steve Holland (August 1, 2013). “Russia gives Snowden asylum, Obama-Putin summit in doubt”. Reuters. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ “U.S. Electronic Espionage: A Memoir”. Ramparts. August 1972. pp. 35–50. “The SIGINT community was defined by a TOP SECRET treaty signed in 1947. It was called the UKUSA treaty. The National Security Agency signed for the U.S. and became what’s called First Party to the Treaty.” Jump up ^ Campbell, Duncan (August 12, 1988). “Somebody’s Listening”. New Statesman. Archived from the original on April 20, 2013. “The Congressional officials were first told of the Thurmond interception by a former employee of the Lockheed Space and Missiles Corporation, Margaret Newsham, who now lives in Sunnyvale, California.” Jump up ^ “Shayler: Whistleblower or traitor?”. BBC. March 3, 2000. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ JOSEPH FINDER (April 29, 2001). “Bugging the World”. The New York Times. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ “NSA Whistleblowers William (Bill) Binney and J. Kirk Wiebe”. Government Accountability Project. Jump up ^ Ellen Nakashima (July 14, 2010). “Former NSA executive Thomas A. Drake may pay high price for media leak”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Davies, Ben (November 27, 2003). “Interview: Whistleblower Katharine Gun”. BBC. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ “UK ‘spied on UN’s Kofi Annan'”. BBC. February 26, 2004. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ JAMES RISEN and ERIC LICHTBLAU (December 16, 2005). “Bush Lets U.S. Spy on Callers Without Courts”. The New York Times. Jump up ^ Brian Ross (January 10, 2006). “NSA Whistleblower Alleges Illegal Spying”. ABC News. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Leslie Cauley (5/11/2006). “NSA has massive database of Americans’ phone calls”. USA Today. Jump up ^ “Wiretap Whistle-Blower’s Account”. Wired. April 6, 2006. Retrieved December 28, 2013.[dead link] Jump up ^ “Wikileaks disclosure shines light on Big Brother”. CBS News. December 1, 2011. Jump up ^ Michael Hastings (February 28, 2012). “Exclusive: Homeland Security Kept Tabs on Occupy Wall Street”. Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 5, 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b “How Edward Snowden led journalist and film-maker to reveal NSA secrets”. The Guardian. Retrieved August 20, 2013. Jump up ^ Mark Hosenball (August 15, 2013), Snowden downloaded NSA secrets while working for Dell, sources say Reuters Jump up ^ Carmon, Irin (June 10, 2013). “How we broke the NSA story”. Salon. Retrieved June 11, 2013. Jump up ^ Peter Maass (August 18, 2013), “How Laura Poitras Helped Snowden Spill His Secrets” The New York Times Jump up ^ Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen; Poitras, Laura (June 9, 2013). “Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved June 9, 2013. Jump up ^ Smith, Matt; Pearson, Michael (June 10, 2013). “NSA leaker holed up in Hong Kong hotel, running low on cash”. CNN. Retrieved June 10, 2013. Jump up ^ Everything We Learned From Edward Snowden in 2013 – NationalJournal.com ^ Jump up to: a b Glenn Greenwald (June 6, 2013). “NSA collecting phone records of millions of Verizon customers daily”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved September 16, 2013. Jump up ^ Danny Yadron and Evan Perez (June 14, 2013). “T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless Shielded from NSA Sweep”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 10, 2014. Jump up ^ Gellman, Barton; Poitras, Laura (June 6, 2013). “US Intelligence Mining Data from Nine U.S. Internet Companies in Broad Secret Program”. The Washington Post. Retrieved June 15, 2013. Jump up ^ Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 6, 2013). “NSA Taps in to Internet Giants’ Systems to Mine User Data, Secret Files Reveal – Top-Secret Prism Program Claims Direct Access to Servers of Firms Including Google, Apple and Facebook – Companies Deny Any Knowledge of Program in Operation Since 2007 – Obama Orders US to Draw Up Overseas Target List for Cyber-Attacks”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved June 15, 2013. Jump up ^ “NSA slides explain the PRISM data-collection program”. The Washington Post. June 6, 2013 and updated July 10, 2013. Retrieved February 11, 2014. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Todd Lindeman (June 29, 2013). “Inner workings of a top-secret spy program”. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 11, 2014. Jump up ^ Gellman, Barton; Poitras, Laura (June 7, 2013). “U.S., British intelligence mining data from nine U.S. Internet companies in broad secret program”. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 20, 2013. Jump up ^ Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach, Fidelius Schmid and Holger Stark (June 29, 2013). “NSA Spied on European Union Offices”. Der Spiegel. Jump up ^ Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark. “How America Spies on Europe and the UN”. Der Spiegel. Jump up ^ EXCLUSIVE: US hacks Chinese mobile phone companies, South China Morning Post Jump up ^ NSA targeted China’s Tsinghua University in hacking attacks, South China Morning Post Jump up ^ Lam, Lana (June 23, 2013). “US hacked Pacnet, Asia Pacific fibre-optic network operator, in 2009”. South China Morning Post (Hong Kong). Retrieved June 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach und Holger Stark. “Geheimdokumente: NSA überwacht 500 Millionen Verbindungen in Deutschland”. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved June 30, 2013. Jump up ^ MacAskill, Ewen; Borger, Julian (June 30, 2013). “New NSA leaks show how US is bugging its European allies”. The Guardian (London). Jump up ^ MacAskill, Ewen; Davies, Nick; Hopkins, Nick; Borger, Julian; Ball, James (June 17, 2013). “GCHQ intercepted foreign politicians’ communications at G20 summits”. The Guardian (London). Jump up ^ MacAskill, Ewen; Borger, Julian; Hopkins, Nick; Davies, Nick; Ball, James (June 21, 2013). “GCHQ taps fiber-optic cables for secret access to world’s communications”. The Guardian (London). ^ Jump up to: a b Ewen MacAskill; Julian Borger; Nick Hopkins; Nick Davies; James Ball (June 21, 2013). “GCHQ taps fibre-optic cables for secret access to world’s communications”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved June 21, 2013. Jump up ^ Philip Bump (June 21, 2013). “The UK Tempora Program Captures Vast Amounts of Data – and Shares with NSA”. The Atlantic Wire. Retrieved June 23, 2013. Jump up ^ Glenn Greenwald and Spencer Ackerman (June 27, 2013). “NSA collected US email records in bulk for more than two years under Obama”. The Guardian. Retrieved August 1, 2013. Jump up ^ Glenn Greenwald and Spencer Ackerman (June 27, 2013). “How the NSA is still harvesting your online data”. The Guardian. Retrieved August 1, 2013. Jump up ^ Glenn Greenwald and Ewen MacAskill (June 11, 2013). “Boundless Informant: the NSA’s secret tool to track global surveillance data”. The Guardian. Retrieved January 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark. “Partner and Target: NSA Snoops on 500 Million German Data Connections”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved January 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Hubert Gude, Laura Poitras and Marcel Rosenbach. “German Intelligence Sends Massive Amounts of Data to the NSA”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved January 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Vladeck, Steve (May 22, 2013). “Why Clapper Matters: The Future of Programmatic Surveillance”. Lawfare. Retrieved July 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Staff (June 20, 2013). “Procedures Used by NSA to Target Non-US Persons: Exhibit A – Full Document – Top-Secret Documents Show Fisa Judges Have Signed Off on Broad Orders Allowing the NSA to Make Use of Information ‘Inadvertently’ Collected from Domestic US Communications Without a Warrant – Revealed: The Secret Rules That Allow NSA to Use US Data Without a Warrant”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved July 13, 2013. Jump up ^ Staff (June 20, 2013). “Procedures Used by NSA to Minimize Data Collection from US Persons: Exhibit B – Full Document – The Documents Detail the Procedures the NSA Is Required to Follow to Target ‘Non-US Persons’ under Its Foreign Intelligence Powers – And What the Agency Does to Minimize Data Collected on US Citizens and Residents – Revealed: The Secret Rules That Allow NSA to Use US Data Without a Warrant”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved July 13, 2013. Jump up ^ Greenwald, Glenn; Ball, James (June 20, 2013). “The Top Secret Rules That Allow NSA to Use US Data Without a Warrant – Fisa Court Submissions Show Broad Scope of Procedures Governing NSA’s Surveillance of Americans’ Communication – Document One: Procedures Used by NSA to Target Non-US Persons – Document Two: Procedures Used by NSA to Minimise Data Collected from US Persons”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved July 13, 2013. Jump up ^ Ellen Nakashima, Barton Gellman and Greg Miller (June 21, 2013). “New documents reveal parameters of NSA’s secret surveillance programs”. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 13, 2014. Jump up ^ Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark (30 June 2013). “Partner and Target: NSA Snoops on 500 Million German Data Connections”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 30 March 2014. Jump up ^ Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach, Fidelius Schmid, Holger Stark and Jonathan Stock (1 July 2013). “Cover Story: How the NSA Targets Germany and Europe”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 30 March 2014. Jump up ^ Craig Timberg and Ellen Nakashima (July 7, 2013). “Agreements with private companies protect U.S. access to cables’ data for surveillance”. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Jump up ^ Lindemann, Todd (July 6, 2013). “A connected world”. The Wshington Post. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Jump up ^ EUA espionaram milhões de e-mails e ligações de brasileiros, O Globo, July 6, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2013. Jump up ^ The NSA’s mass and indiscriminate spying on Brazilians, Glenn Greenwald, The Guardian, July 7, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2013. Jump up ^ EUA expandem o aparato de vigilância continuamente, O Globo, July 6, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g Philip Dorling (July 8, 2013). “Snowden reveals Australia’s links to US spy web”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved July 8, 2013. Jump up ^ Kaz, Roberto (July 8, 2013). “NSA e CIA mantiveram em Brasília equipe para coleta de dados filtrados de satélite” (in Portuguese). O Globo. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ “Interview with Whistleblower Edward Snowden on Global Spying”. Der Spiegel. July 8, 2013. Jump up ^ “Edward Snowden Accuses Germany of Aiding NSA in Spying Efforts”. Der Spiegel. July 7, 2013. Jump up ^ ‘Prolific Partner’: German Intelligence Used NSA Spy Program, Der Spiegel. Retrieved July 21, 2013. Jump up ^ Geiger, Friedrich (August 3, 2013). “German Intelligence Agency Providing NSA With Metadata – Report”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 3, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c “‘Key Partners’: Secret Links Between Germany and the NSA”. Der Spiegel. July 22, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b Matthias Gebauer. “Prism in Afghanistan: Conflicting Accounts By German Government”. Der Spiegel. Jump up ^ Greenwald, Glenn (July 31, 2013).”XKeyscore: NSA tool collects ‘nearly everything a user does on the internet'”. The Guardian. Retrieved August 1, 2013. Jump up ^ Nakashima, Ellen (July 31, 2013). “Newly declassified documents on phone records program released”. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 4, 2013. Jump up ^ Charlie Savage and David E. Sanger (July 31, 2013). “Senate Panel Presses N.S.A. on Phone Logs”. The New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2013. Jump up ^ Angwin, Julia (December 13, 2012). “U.S. Terrorism Agency to Tap a Vast Database of Citizens”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 21, 2013. Jump up ^ Iain Thomson (July 8, 2013). “Snowden: US and Israel did create Stuxnet attack code”. The Register. Retrieved July 8, 2013. Jump up ^ Révélations sur le Big Brother français (2), Le Monde, July 4, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2013. Jump up ^ France ‘runs vast electronic spying operation using NSA-style methods’, The Guardian, July 4, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g John Goetz and Frederik Obermaier. “Snowden enthüllt Namen der spähenden Telekomfirmen”. Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved August 2, 2013. “In den internen Papieren des GCHQ aus dem Jahr 2009 stehen sie nun aufgelistet: Verizon Business, Codename: Dacron, British Telecommunications (codenamed “Remedy”), Vodafone Cable (“Gerontic”), Global Crossing (“Pinnage”), Level 3 (codenamed “Little”), Viatel (“Vitreous”) und Interoute (“Streetcar”).” ^ Jump up to: a b c d John Goetz, Hans Leyendecker and Frederik Obermaier (August 28, 2013). “British Officials Have Far-Reaching Access To Internet And Telephone Communications”. Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved August 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Dorling, Philip. “Australian spies in global deal to tap undersea cables”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved August 29, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Chambers, Madeline (August 25, 2013). “U.S. spy agency bugged U.N. headquarters: Germany’s Spiegel”. Reuters. Retrieved January 12, 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b “US-Geheimdienst hörte Zentrale der Vereinten Nationen ab”. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved August 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Savage, Charlie (August 8, 2013). “N.S.A. Said to Search Content of Messages to and From U.S.”. The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2013. Jump up ^ “Snowden Document: NSA Spied On Al Jazeera Communications”. Der Spiegel. August 31, 2013. Retrieved January 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Siobhan Gorman and Jennifer Valentiono-Devries (August 20, 2013). “New Details Show Broader NSA Surveillance Reach – Programs Cover 75% of Nation’s Traffic, Can Snare Emails”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 21, 2013. Jump up ^ “Graphic: How the NSA Scours Internet Traffic in the U.S.”. The Wall Street Journal. August 20, 2013. Retrieved August 21, 2013. Jump up ^ Jennifer Valentiono-Devries and Siobhan Gorman (August 20, 2013). “What You Need to Know on New Details of NSA Spying”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 21, 2013. Jump up ^ Jennifer Valentino-Devries and Danny Yadron (August 1, 2013). “FBI Taps Hacker Tactics to Spy on Suspects”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 9, 2013. Jump up ^ Jennifer Valentino-DeVries and Danny Yadron (August 1, 2013). “How the FBI Hacks Criminal Suspects”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 9, 2013. Jump up ^ “NSA report on privacy violations in the first quarter of 2012”. The Washington Post. August 16, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2013. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (August 15, 2013). “What to say, and not to say, to ‘our overseers'”. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (August 15, 2013). “First direct evidence of illegal surveillance found by the FISA court”. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Gellmann, Barton (August 16, 2013). “NSA broke privacy rules thousands of times per year, audit finds”. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Jump up ^ Nakashima, Ellen (August 16, 2013). “Lawmakers, privacy advocates call for reforms at NSA”. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Gellmann, Barton (August 16, 2013). “NSA statements to The Post”. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (August 15, 2013). “What’s a ‘violation’?”. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Leonnig, Carol D. (August 16, 2013). “Court: Ability to police U.S. spying program limited”. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Nakashima, Ellen (August 21, 2013). “NSA gathered thousands of Americans’ e-mails before court ordered it to revise its tactics”. The Washington Post. Retrieved September 16, 2013. Jump up ^ “FISA court ruling on illegal NSA e-mail collection program”. The Washington Post. August 21, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (August 15, 2013). “First direct evidence of illegal surveillance found by the FISA court”. The Washington Post. Retrieved September 16, 2013. Jump up ^ Charlie Savage and Scott Shane (August 21, 2013). “Secret Court Rebuked N.S.A. on Surveillance”. The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2013. Jump up ^ Mark Hosenball and Tabassum Zakaria (August 22, 2013). “NSA collected 56,000 emails by Americans a year: documents”. Reuters. NBC News. Retrieved September 16, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Craig Timberg and Barton Gellman (August 30, 2013). “NSA paying U.S. companies for access to communications networks”. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2013. Jump up ^ Wallsten, Peter (August 17, 2013). “House panel withheld document on NSA surveillance program from members”. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Weich, Ronald. “Report of the National Security Agency’s Bulk Collection Programs for USA PATRIOT Act Reauthorization”. Office of the Assistant Attorney General. Director of National Intelligence. Retrieved August 25, 2013. Jump up ^ James Ball, Luke Harding and Juliette Garside (August 1, 2013). “Exclusive: NSA pays £100m in secret funding for GCHQ”. Retrieved August 2, 2013. Jump up ^ James Ball and Spencer Ackerman (August 9, 2013). “NSA loophole allows warrantless search for US citizens’ emails and phone calls – Exclusive: Spy agency has secret backdoor permission to search databases for individual Americans’ communications”. The Guardian. Retrieved August 12, 2013. Jump up ^ Farivar, Cyrus (August 10, 2013). “New leak: NSA can search US e-mail data but theoretically won’t”. Ars Technica. Retrieved August 13, 2013. Jump up ^ Roberts, Dan (August 23, 2013). “US surveillance guidelines not updated for 30 years, privacy board finds – Privacy watchdog points out in letter to intelligence chiefs that rules designed to protect Americans are severely outdated”. The Guardian. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Jump up ^ Medine, David (August 22, 2013). “2013-08-22 Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board letter to US Attorney General Eric Holder and Directer of National Intelligence James Clapper”. Privacy & Civil Liberties Oversight Board. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Jump up ^ Strohm, Chris (August 24, 2013). “Lawmakers Probe Willful Abuses of Power by NSA Analysts”. Bloomberg News. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Jump up ^ Roberts, Dan (August 23, 2013). “NSA analysts deliberately broke rules to spy on Americans, agency reveals – Inspector general’s admission undermines fresh insistences from president that breaches of privacy rules were inadvertent”. The Guardian. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Jump up ^ Gorman, Siobhan (August 23, 2013). “NSA Officers Spy on Love Interests”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Jump up ^ MacAskill, Ewen (August 23, 2013). “NSA paid millions to cover Prism compliance costs for tech companies • Top-secret files show first evidence of financial relationship • Prism companies include Google and Yahoo, says NSA • Costs were incurred after 2011 Fisa court ruling”. The Guardian. Retrieved August 24, 2013. Jump up ^ David Leppard and Chris Williams (May 3, 2009). “Jacqui Smith’s secret plan to carry on snooping”. The Sunday Times (London). Retrieved May 3, 2009. Jump up ^ Henry Porter. “GCHQ revelations: mastery of the internet will mean mastery of everyone”. The Guardian. Retrieved October 19, 2013. Jump up ^ James Ball, Julian Borger and Glenn Greenwald (September 5, 2013). “US and UK spy agencies defeat privacy and security on the internet”. The Guardian. Retrieved September 5, 2013. Jump up ^ Nicole Perlroth, Jeff Larson and Scott Shane (September 5, 2013). “N.S.A. Foils Much Internet Encryption”. The New York Times. Retrieved September 5, 2013. Jump up ^ “Secret Documents Reveal N.S.A. Campaign Against Encryption”. The New York Times. September 5, 2013. Retrieved September 7, 2013. Jump up ^ “Unlocking Private Communications”. The New York Times. September 5, 2013. Retrieved September 7, 2013. Jump up ^ Perlroth, Nicole, Larson, Jeff, and Shane, Scott (September 5, 2013). “The NSA’s Secret Campaign to Crack, Undermine Internet Security”. ProPublica. Jump up ^ Nakashima, Ellen (September 6, 2013). “NSA has made strides in thwarting encryption used to protect Internet communication”. The Washington Post. Retrieved September 7, 2013. Jump up ^ Guillaume Champeau. “Lustre : la France aurait coopéré avec la NSA” (in French). Numerama. Retrieved December 30, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b “Espionnage : la France perd son Lustre” (in French). ZDNet. 28 October 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2013. Jump up ^ Nakashima, Ellen (September 8, 2013). “Obama administration had restrictions on NSA reversed in 2011”. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2014. Jump up ^ “‘Follow the Money’: NSA Spies on International Payments”. Der Spiegel. September 15, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013. Jump up ^ Romero, Simon; Archibold, Randal C. (September 2, 2013). “Brazil Angered Over Report N.S.A. Spied on President”. The New York Times. Retrieved September 16, 2013. Jump up ^ “NSA Documents Show United States Spied Brazilian Oil Giant”. Jornal da Globo Fantástico. September 8, 2013. Retrieved September 24, 2013. Jump up ^ James Risen and Laura Poitras (September 28, 2013). “N.S.A. Gathers Data on Social Connections of U.S. Citizens”. The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, 2013. Jump up ^ “NSA and Israeli intelligence: memorandum of understanding – full document”. The Guardian. September 11, 2013. Retrieved September 14, 2013. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman. “Secret documents detail U.S. war in cyberspace”. The Washington Post (via The Japan Times). Retrieved September 2, 2013. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Ellen Nakashima (August 31, 2013). “U.S. spy agencies mounted 231 offensive cyber-operations in 2011, documents show”. The Washington Post. Retrieved August 31, 2013. Jump up ^ Konrad Lischka und Julia Stanek (August 31, 2013). “Cyber-Angriffe: USA infizieren Zehntausende Computer mit NSA-Trojanern”. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved August 31, 2013. Jump up ^ Zetter, Kim (September 4, 2013). “NSA Laughs at PCs, Prefers Hacking Routers and Switches”. Wired.com. Retrieved October 2, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark. “iSpy: How the NSA Accesses Smartphone Data”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved September 9, 2013. Jump up ^ Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach, and Holger Stark. “Photo Gallery: Spying on Smartphones”. Der Spiegel. Archived from the original on 2014-01-27. Retrieved September 9, 2013. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman, Craig Timberg and Steven Rich (October 4, 2013). “Secret NSA documents show campaign against Tor encrypted network”. The Washington Post. Retrieved November 19, 2013. Jump up ^ Steven Rich and Matt DeLong (October 4, 2013). “NSA slideshow on ‘The TOR problem'”. The Washington Post. Retrieved November 19, 2013. Jump up ^ Lee, Timothy B. (October 4, 2013). “Everything you need to know about the NSA and Tor in one FAQ”. The Washington Post. Retrieved November 19, 2013. Jump up ^ “NSA report on the Tor encrypted network”. The Washington Post. October 4, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013. Jump up ^ “GCHQ report on ‘MULLENIZE’ program to ‘stain’ anonymous electronic traffic”. The Washington Post. October 4, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013. Jump up ^ James Ball, Bruce Schneier and Glenn Greenwald (October 4, 2013). “NSA and GCHQ target Tor network that protects anonymity of web users”. The Guardian. Retrieved November 19, 2013. Jump up ^ Schneier, Bruce (October 4, 2013). “Attacking Tor: how the NSA targets users’ online anonymity”. The Guardian. Retrieved November 19, 2013. Jump up ^ “‘Tor Stinks’ presentation – read the full document”. The Guardian. October 4, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013. Jump up ^ “Tor: ‘The king of high-secure, low-latency anonymity'”. The Guardian. October 4, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013. Jump up ^ “Ministério de Minas e Energia está na mira de espiões americanos e canadenses”. O Globo. October 6, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013. Jump up ^ “Report: Canada spies targeted Brazil mine ministry”. Associated Press. Associated Press. October 6, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013. Jump up ^ Ockenden, Will (October 8, 2013). “Australia prepared briefing on US global internet spying program PRISM before Snowden revelations”. ABC News. Retrieved October 8, 2013. Jump up ^ “AG Department Prism FOI PDF”. ABC News Online. June 27, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Ashkan Soltani (October 15, 2013). “NSA collects millions of e-mail address books globally”. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (October 15, 2013). “The NSA’s problem? Too much data.”. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (October 15, 2013). “SCISSORS: How the NSA collects less data”. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (October 15, 2013). “An excerpt from the NSA’s Wikipedia”. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 12, 2014. Jump up ^ Jens Glüsing, Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark (October 20, 2013). “Fresh Leak on US Spying: NSA Accessed Mexican President’s Email”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved October 22, 2013. Jump up ^ “NSA-Spionage: Mexiko fordert Aufklärung über US-Bespitzelungen”. Der Spiegel (in German). October 21, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2013. Jump up ^ Mark Mazzetti and David E. Sanger (October 30, 2013). “Tap on Merkel Provides Peek at Vast Spy Net”. The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2013. Jump up ^ Mark Landler and Michael S. Schmidt (October 30, 2013). “Spying Known at Top Levels, Officials Say”. The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Ball, James (October 24, 2013). “NSA monitored calls of 35 world leaders after US official handed over contacts”. The Guardian. Retrieved October 24, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Siobhan Gorhan and Adam Entous (October 28, 2013). “Obama Unaware as U.S. Spied on World Leaders: Officials”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Ball, James (October 25, 2013). “Leaked memos reveal GCHQ efforts to keep mass surveillance secret”. The Guardian. Retrieved October 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Nakashima, Ellen (October 2, 2013). “NSA had test project to collect data on Americans’ cellphone locations, director says”. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Ashkan Soltani (October 30, 2013). “NSA infiltrates links to Yahoo, Google data centers worldwide, Snowden documents say”. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2013. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman, Todd Lindeman and Ashkan Soltani (October 30, 2013). “How the NSA is infiltrating private networks”. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2013. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Matt DeLong (October 30, 2013). “How the NSA’s MUSCULAR program collects too much data from Yahoo and Google”. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2013. Jump up ^ Peterson, Andrea (October 30, 2013). “PRISM already gave the NSA access to tech giants. Here’s why it wanted more.”. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2013. Jump up ^ Washington Post Staff (October 30, 2013). “NSA statement on Washington Post report on infiltration of Google, Yahoo data center links”. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 31, 2013. Jump up ^ Jacob Appelbaum, Holger Stark, Marcel Rosenbach and Jörg Schindler (October 23, 2013). “Berlin Complains: Did US Tap Chancellor Merkel’s Mobile Phone?”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved October 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Fischer, Sebastian (October 24, 2013). “Merkel’s Phone: Spying Suspicions Put Obama in a Tight Spot”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved October 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Charly Wilder and Rupert Neat (October 24). “‘Out of Hand’: Europe Furious Over US Spying Allegations”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved October 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Ian Traynor in Brussels, Philip Oltermann in Berlin, and Paul Lewis in Washington (October 24). “Angela Merkel’s call to Obama: are you bugging my mobile phone?”. The Guardian. Retrieved October 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Ball, James (October 25, 2013). “NSA monitored calls of 35 world leaders after US official handed over contacts”. The Guardian. Retrieved October 25, 2013. Jump up ^ Traynor, Ian (October 25, 2013). “Germany and France warn NSA spying fallout jeopardises fight against terror”. The Guardian. Retrieved October 25, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Jacob Appelbaum, Nikolaus Blome, Hubert Gude, Ralf Neukirch, René Pfister, Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach, Jörg Schindler, Gregor Peter Schmitz and Holger Stark. Translated from the German by Kristen Allen and Charly Wilder. (October 27, 2013). “Der Spiegel Cover Story: How NSA Spied on Merkel Cell Phone from Berlin Embassy – Embassy Espionage: The NSA’s Secret Spy Hub in Berlin”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved November 1, 2013. Jump up ^ “NSA-Überwachung: Merkels Handy steht seit 2002 auf US-Abhörliste”. Der Spiegel (in German). October 26, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2013. Jump up ^ “U.S. monitored German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s phone since 2002”. Daily Mail (London). October 26, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2013. Jump up ^ Ofer Aderet (October 26, 2015). “Obama: Had I known NSA tapped Merkel’s cell, I would have stopped it, German media reports”. Haaretz. Retrieved October 26, 2013. Jump up ^ David E. Sanger and Mark Mazzetti (October 24, 2013). “Allegation of U.S. Spying on Merkel Puts Obama at Crossroads”. The New York Times. Retrieved October 26, 2013. Jump up ^ Ian Traynor and Paul Lewis (December 17, 2013). “Merkel compared NSA to Stasi in heated encounter with Obama”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Poitras, Laura (29 March 2014). “GCHQ and NSA Targeted Private German Companies and Merkel”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 4 April 2014. Jump up ^ “Germany hopes for details from Snowden on US spying”. bbc.co.uk. November 1, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2013. Jump up ^ “Photo Gallery: Spies in the Embassy 10/27/2013”. Der Spiegel. October 27, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Dorling, Philipp (October 31, 2013). “Exposed: Australia’s Asia spy network”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved November 1, 2013. Jump up ^ Konrad Lischka and Matthias Kremp (October 28, 2013). “NSA-Spähskandal: So funktionieren die Abhöranlagen in US-Botschaften”. Der Spiegel (in German). Retrieved November 1, 2013. Jump up ^ Perlez, Jane (October 31, 2013). “Australia Said to Play Part in N.S.A. Effort”. The New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2013. Jump up ^ Jacques Follorou and Glenn Greenwald (October 21, 2013). “France in the NSA’s crosshair : phone networks under surveillance”. Le Monde. Retrieved October 22, 2013. Jump up ^ Gearan, Anna (October 22, 2013). “Report that NSA collected French phone records causing diplomatic headache for U.S.”. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 22, 2013. Jump up ^ Adam Entous and Siobhan Gorman (October 29, 2013). “U.S. Says France, Spain Aided NSA Spying”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 29, 2013. Jump up ^ Ellen Nakashima and Karen DeYoung (October 29, 2013). “NSA chief says NATO allies shared phone records with the U.S. spy agency”. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 30, 2013. Jump up ^ “Espionnage de la NSA : tous les documents publiés par “Le Monde””. Le Monde. October 21, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2013. Jump up ^ Miguel González. “NSA revelations: Spain also a victim of US espionage”. El Pais. Retrieved December 13, 2013. Jump up ^ Miguel González. “España eleva el tono de las quejas a EE UU por el espionaje masivo” (in Spanish). El Pais. Retrieved December 13, 2013. Jump up ^ Paul Hamilos. “Spain colluded in NSA spying on its citizens, Spanish newspaper reports”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 22, 2013. Jump up ^ Glenn Greenwald and Germán Aranda. “El CNI facilitó el espionaje masivo de EEUU a España” (in Spanish). El Mundo. Retrieved December 22, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Shane, Scott (November 2, 2013). “No Morsel Too Minuscule for All-Consuming N.S.A.”. New York Times. Archived from the original on November 25, 2013. Retrieved November 25, 2013. “This “communications fingerprinting,” as a document called it, is the key to what the N.S.A. does. It allows the agency’s computers to scan the stream of international communications and pluck out messages tied to the supreme leader.” Jump up ^ Campbell, Duncan (November 5, 2013). “Revealed: Britain’s ‘secret listening post in the heart of Berlin'”. The Independent (London). Retrieved November 5, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Tony Paterson (November 10, 2013). “GCHQ used ‘Quantum Insert’ technique to set up fake LinkedIn pages and spy on mobile phone giants”. The Independent (London). Retrieved November 10, 2013. Jump up ^ “Belgacom Attack: Britain’s GCHQ Hacked Belgian Telecoms Firm”. Der Spiegel. 20 September 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach, Christoph Scheuermann, Holger Stark und Christian Stöcker (23 November 2011). “Quantum Spying: GCHQ Used Fake LinkedIn Pages to Target Engineers”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 23 March 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark (November 17, 2013). “‘Royal Concierge’: GCHQ Monitors Hotel Reservations to Track Diplomats”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved November 17, 2013. Jump up ^ Indonesia recalls Canberra ambassador over Yudhoyono phone tapping attempt, Foreign minister demands explanation after documents reveal Australian agencies targeted phones of president and his wife The Guardian November 18, 2013 ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i Michael Brissenden (November 18, 2013). “Australia spied on Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, leaked Edward Snowden documents reveal”. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 13, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b JAMES RISEN and LAURA POITRAS (November 22, 2013). “N.S.A. Report Outlined Goals for More Power”. The New York Times. Retrieved November 23, 2013. Jump up ^ “A Strategy for Surveillance Powers”. The New York Times. November 23, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2013. Jump up ^ Floor Boon, Steven Derix and Huib Modderkolk. “Document Snowden: Nederland al sinds 1946 doelwit van NSA”. NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). Retrieved November 23, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Floor Boon, Steven Derix and Huib Modderkolk. “NSA infected 50,000 computer networks with malicious software”. NRC Handelsblad. Retrieved November 23, 2013. Jump up ^ Ewen MacAskill, James Ball and Katharine Murphy. “Revealed: Australian spy agency offered to share data about ordinary citizens”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 3, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Barton Gellman and Ashkan Soltani (December 4, 2013). “NSA tracking cellphone locations worldwide, Snowden documents show”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 5, 2013. Jump up ^ “How the NSA is tracking people right now”. The Washington Post. December 4, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2013. Jump up ^ Ashkan Soltani and Matt DeLong (December 4, 2013). “FASCIA: The NSA’s huge trove of location records”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 6, 2013. Jump up ^ “How the NSA uses cellphone tracking to find and ‘develop’ targets”. The Washington Post. December 4, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2013. Jump up ^ “Reporter explains NSA collection of cellphone data”. The Washington Post. December 4, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2013. Jump up ^ Peterson, Andrea (December 4, 2013). “The NSA says it ‘obviously’ can track locations without a warrant. That’s not so obvious.”. The Washington Post’s The Switch. Retrieved December 6, 2013. Jump up ^ Lee, Timothy (December 4, 2013). “The NSA could figure out how many Americans it’s spying on. It just doesn’t want to.”. The Washington Post’s The Switch. Retrieved December 6, 2013. Jump up ^ Ashkan Soltani and Barton Gellmann (December 10, 2013). “New documents show how the NSA infers relationships based on mobile location data”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 26, 2013. Jump up ^ Ashkan Soltani, Andrea Peterson and Barton Gellman (December 10, 2013). “NSA uses Google cookies to pinpoint targets for hacking”. The Washington Post. Retrieved January 28, 2014. Jump up ^ Ashkan Soltani and Matt DeLong (December 10, 2013). “NSA signal-surveillance success stories”. The Washington Post. Retrieved January 28, 2014. Jump up ^ “Reporter: For NSA, Google cookies allow ‘laser-guided’ targeting”. The Washington Post. December 11, 2013. Retrieved January 28, 2014. Jump up ^ Arne Halvorsen, Anne Marte Blindheim, Harald S. Klungtveit, Kjetil Magne Sørenes, Tore Bergsaker and Gunnar Hultgreen. “Norway’s secret surveillance of Russian politics for the NSA”. Dagbladet. Retrieved December 18, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f “Snowden-dokumentene: Norge er NSAs drømmepartner” (in Norwegian). Dagbladet. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Glenn Greenwald, Ryan Gallagher, Filip Struwe and Anna H Svensson. “SVT avslöjar: FRA spionerar på Ryssland åt USA” (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. Retrieved December 5, 2013. Jump up ^ Filip Struwe, Glenn Greenwald, Ryan Gallagher, Sven Bergman, Joachim Dyfvermark and Fredrik Laurin. “Snowden files reveal Swedish-American surveillance of Russia” (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. Retrieved December 5, 2013. Jump up ^ Sven Bergman, Joachim Dyfvermark, Ryan Gallagher, Glenn Greenwald and Fredrik Laurin. “FRA spying on “energy” and “Baltics” for USA”. Sveriges Television. Retrieved December 7, 2013. Jump up ^ “Cold War treaty confirms Sweden was not neutral”. The Local. Retrieved December 12, 2013. Jump up ^ “NSA “asking for” specific exchanges from FRA – Secret treaty since 1954″. Sveriges Television. Retrieved December 12, 2013. Jump up ^ “Read the Snowden Documents From the NSA”. Sveriges Television. Retrieved December 12, 2013. Jump up ^ Stefan Geens (2012-04-22), Internet freedom in Sweden — a closer look, goteborgdaily.se, “The FRA law has proven controversial in Sweden; the DLD law not so much.” Jump up ^ “En anpassad försvarsunderrättelseverksamhet (Prop. 2006/07:63)”. Regeringen. Retrieved 10 March 2014. Jump up ^ “Ändrad FRA-lag nu ute på remiss”. Tidningarnas Telegrambyrå/Dagens Nyheter. Retrieved 10 March 2014. Jump up ^ Sjögren, Per-Anders. “Alliansen enig om stora ändringar i FRA-lag” (in Swedish). Riksdag & Departement. Retrieved 10 March 2014. Jump up ^ Bynert, Simon. “Militärt hot villkor för FRA-spaning” (in Swedish). SvD. Retrieved 10 March 2014. Jump up ^ “Alliansen enig om stärkt integritet, tydligare reglering och förbättrad kontroll i kompletteringar till signalspaningslagen” (in Swedish). Regeringen. Retrieved 10 March 2014. Jump up ^ Ashkan Soltani, Andrea Peterson, and Barton Gellman. “NSA uses Google cookies to pinpoint targets for hacking”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 12, 2013. Jump up ^ Greg Weston, Glenn Greenwald, Ryan Gallagher. “New Snowden docs show U.S. spied during G20 in Toronto”. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved December 13, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c Glenn Greenwald and Stefania Maurizi. “Revealed: How the NSA Targets Italy”. L’espresso. Retrieved December 13, 2013. Jump up ^ MARK MAZZETTI and JUSTIN ELLIOTT (December 9, 2013). “Spies Infiltrate a Fantasy Realm of Online Games”. The New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2013. Jump up ^ Ball, James (December 9, 2013). “Xbox Live among game services targeted by US and UK spy agencies”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ “NSA files: games and virtual environments paper”. The Guardian. December 9, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Justin Elliott, ProPublica, and Mark Mazzetti, The New York Times (December 9, 2013). “NSA files: games and virtual environments paper”. Pro Publica. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Craig Timberg and Ashkan Soltani. “By cracking cellphone code, NSA has capacity for decoding private conversations”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 14, 2013. Jump up ^ “How the NSA pinpoints a mobile device”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 14, 2013. Jump up ^ Leon, Richard (December 16, 2013). “Federal judge rules NSA program is likely unconstitutional a.k.a. Klayman et al. v. Obama et al. Memorandum and Opinion from December 16, 2013 in Civil Action 13-0851 in United Case District Court for the District of Columbia”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 17, 2013. Jump up ^ Savage, Charlie (December 16, 2013). “Judge Questions Legality of N.S.A. Phone Records”. The New York Times. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Bill Mears and Evan Perez, CNN (December 17, 2013). “Judge: NSA domestic phone data-mining unconstitutional”. cnn. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Kravets, David (December 16, 2013). “Court Says NSA Bulk Telephone Spying Is Unconstitutional”. Wired. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Kevin Johnson and Richard Wolf (December 16, 2013). “Federal judge rules against NSA spying”. USA Today. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Gerstein, Josh (December 16, 2013). “Judge: NSA phone program likely unconstitutional”. Politico. Retrieved December 18, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Ellen Nakashima and Ann E. Marimow (December 16, 2013). “Judge: NSA’s collecting of phone records is probably unconstitutional”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 17, 2013. Jump up ^ Spencer Ackerman and Dan Roberts (December 16, 2013). “NSA phone surveillance program likely unconstitutional, federal judge rules”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 18, 2013. Jump up ^ Pauley III, William H. (December 27, 2013). “United States Disctrict Court Southern District of New York: American Civil Liberties Union v. James R. Clapper (13 Civ. 3994) (WHP))”. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Adam Liptak and Michael S. Schmidt (December 27, 2013). “Judge Upholds N.S.A.’s Bulk Collection of Data on Calls”. The New York Times. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Denniston, Lyle (December 27, 2013). “Judge upholds NSA’s phone data sweeps (UPDATED)”. Scotusblog. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Peterson, Andrea (December 27, 2013). “The most Kafkaesque paragraph from today’s NSA ruling”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Horwitz, Sari (December 27, 2013). “NSA collection of phone data is lawful, federal judge rules”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Ackermann, Spencer (January 2, 2014). “ACLU will appeal ruling that NSA bulk phone record collection is legal”. The Guardian. Retrieved January 4, 2014. Jump up ^ James Glanz and Andrew W. Lehren (December 20, 2013). “N.S.A. Spied on Allies, Aid Groups and Businesses”. The New York Times. Retrieved December 28, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Jacob Appelbaum, Judith Horchert and Christian Stöcker. “Catalog Reveals NSA Has Back Doors for Numerous Devices – Shopping for Spy Gear: Catalog Advertises NSA Toolbox”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved December 30, 2013. Jump up ^ Jacob Appelbaum, Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach, Christian Stöcker, Jörg Schindler and Holger Start. “Inside TAO: Documents Reveal Top NSA Hacking Unit – The NSA Uses Powerful Toolbox in Effort to Spy on Global Networks”. Der Spiegel. Retrieved December 30, 2013. Jump up ^ “Interactive Graphic: The NSA’s Spy Catalog”. Der Spiegel. December 30, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2014. Jump up ^ Erik Kain (December 29, 2013). “Report: NSA Intercepting Laptops Ordered Online, Installing Spyware”. Forbes. Retrieved December 30, 2013. Jump up ^ RAPHAEL SATTER (December 29, 2013). “Report: NSA intercepts computer deliveries”. Associated Press. Retrieved December 30, 2013. Jump up ^ Courtney Subramanian (December 29, 2013). “The TAO of the NSA: Specialized Hacking Team Gets the ‘Ungettable’”. Time. Retrieved December 30, 2013. Jump up ^ “Glenn Greenwald: The NSA Can “Literally Watch Every Keystroke You Make””. Democracy Now!. Democracy Now!. December 30, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2014. Jump up ^ Walters, Joanna (December 29, 2013). “NSA ‘hacking unit’ infiltrates computers around the world – report”. The Guardian. Retrieved January 4, 2014. Jump up ^ Leyden, John. “French gov used fake Google certificate to read its workers’ traffic”. The Register. Jump up ^ “GHOSTMACHINE: The NSA’s cloud analytics platform”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Michael Winter (January 2, 2014). “NSA working to build computer to crack encryption”. USA Today. Retrieved January 3, 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b c Steven Rich and Barton Gellman (January 3, 2014). “NSA seeks to build quantum computer that could crack most types of encryption”. The Washington Post. Retrieved January 3, 2014. Jump up ^ “A description of the Penetrating Hard Targets project”. The Washington Post. January 2, 2014. Retrieved January 4, 2014. Jump up ^ “Classifying NSA quantum computing efforts”. The Washington Post. January 2, 2014. Retrieved January 4, 2014. Jump up ^ Lee, Timothy B. (January 2, 2014). “Confused about the NSA’s quantum computing project? This MIT computer scientist can explain.”. The Washington Post. Retrieved January 4, 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b “Report: NSA ‘collected 200m texts per day'”. BBC. January 17, 2014. Retrieved January 16, 2014. Jump up ^ Geoff White (January 16, 2014). “Revealed: UK and US spied on text messages of Brits”. Channel 4. Retrieved January 16, 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f James Ball in (January 16, 2014). “NSA collects millions of text messages daily in ‘untargeted’ global sweep”. The Guardian. Retrieved January 16, 2014. Jump up ^ Micek, Peter; Ben-Avie, Jochai; Fox, Jon (January 23, 2014). “US privacy oversight board slams legality & usefulness bulk data collection”. Accessnow.org. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Nakashima, Ellen (January 23, 2014). “Independent review board says NSA phone data program is illegal and should end”. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 3, 2014. Jump up ^ Savage, Charlie (23 January 2014). “Watchdog Report Says N.S.A. Program Is Illegal and Should End”. The New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2014. Jump up ^ James Glanz, Jeff Larson and Andrew W. Lehren (January 27, 2014). “Spy Agencies Tap Data Streaming From Phone Apps – A version of the NYT appeared in print on January 28, 2014, on page A1 of the New York edition with the headline: Spy Agencies Tap Data Streaming From Phone Apps.”. The New York Times. Retrieved January 28, 2014. Jump up ^ “From Britain’s Government Communications Headquarters”. The New York Times. January 27, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b “From the National Security Agency”. The New York Times. January 27, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2014. Jump up ^ Ball, James (January 28, 2014). “Angry Birds and ‘leaky’ phone apps targeted by NSA and GCHQ for user data”. Th Guardian. Retrieved January 28, 2014. Jump up ^ Jeff Larson, ProPublica, and James Glanz and Andrew W. Lehren, The New York Times (January 27, 2014). “Spy Agencies Probe Angry Birds and Other Apps for Personal Data”. ProPublica. Retrieved January 28, 2014. Jump up ^ Ball, James (January 27, 2014). “NSA and GCHQ target ‘leaky’ phone apps like Angry Birds to scoop user data”. The Guardian. Retrieved January 27, 2014. Jump up ^ JAMES GLANZ, JEFF LARSON and ANDREW W. LEHREN (January 27, 2014). “Spy Agencies Scour Phone Apps for Personal Data”. The New York Times. Retrieved January 27, 2014. Jump up ^ Richard Esposito, Matthew Cole, Mark Schone, Glenn Greenwald (January 27, 2014). “Snowden docs reveal British spies snooped on YouTube and Facebook”. NBC News. Retrieved January 27, 2014. Jump up ^ “Psychology A New Kind of SIGDEV (Signals Development) – Establishing the Human Science Operation Cell”. GCHQ. NBC News Investigations. January 27, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2014. Jump up ^ Vidal, John. “Snowden revelations of NSA spying on Copenhagen climate talks spark anger”. The Guardian. Retrieved January 31, 2014. Jump up ^ Sheppard, Kate. “Snowden Docs: U.S. Spied On Negotiators At 2009 Climate Summit”. The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 31, 2014. Jump up ^ Greg Weston, Glenn Greenwald, Ryan Gallagher, (January 30, 2014). “CSEC used airport Wi-Fi to track Canadian travellers: Edward Snowden documents”. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved January 31, 2014. Jump up ^ “CSEC’s airport Wi-Fi tracking (redacted PDF)”. Communications Security Establishment Canada (CBC News). 10 May 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2014. Jump up ^ “Snowden leaks: Canada ‘spied on airport travellers'”. BBC. January 31, 2014. Retrieved January 31, 2014. Jump up ^ Memmott, Mark (January 31, 2014). “Canada Used Airport Wi-Fi To Track Travelers, Snowden Leak Alleges”. NPR. Retrieved January 31, 2014. Jump up ^ Stefan Kornelius, Hans Leyendecker und Georg Mascolo (February 4, 2014). “NSA hatte auch Gerhard Schröder im Visier”. Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved February 5, 2014. Jump up ^ Ottermann, Philip (February 4, 2014). “NSA tapped German ex-chancellor Gerhard Schröder’s phone – report”. The Guardian (Berlin). Retrieved February 5, 2014. Jump up ^ “Report: NSA spied on Merkel’s predecessor too”. Associated Press (AP) (Seattle Post-Intelligencer). February 4, 2014. Retrieved February 5, 2014. Jump up ^ Smale, Alison (February 4, 2014). “German Paper Says U.S. Kept Tabs on Leader”. The New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2014. Jump up ^ “Snowden leaks: GCHQ ‘attacked Anonymous’ hackers”. BBC. February 5, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014. Jump up ^ Sparkes, Matthew (February 6, 2014). “GCHQ turned UK hackers’ attacks against them”. London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved February 7, 2014. Jump up ^ Mark Schone, Richard Esposito, Matthew Cole and Glenn Greenwald. “War on Anonymous: British Spies Attacked Hackers, Snowden Docs Show”. NBC News. Retrieved February 7, 2014. Jump up ^ “The Snowden files: British intelligence agency describes attack on Anonymous”. NBC News Investigations. 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2014. Jump up ^ Nakashima, Ellen (February 7, 2014). “NSA is collecting less than 30 percent of U.S. call data, officials say”. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 10, 2014. Jump up ^ Savage, Charlie (February 7, 2014). “N.S.A. Program Gathers Data on a Third of Nation’s Calls, Officials Say”. The New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2014. Jump up ^ Jeremy Scahill and Glenn Greenwald (February 10, 2014). “The NSA’s Secret Role in the U.S. Assassination Program”. The Intercept. Retrieved February 13, 2014. Jump up ^ Priest, Dana (July 22, 2013). “NSA growth fueled by need to target terrorists”. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 14, 2014. Jump up ^ James Risen and Laura Poitras (February 15, 2014). “Spying by N.S.A. Ally Entangled U.S. Law Firm”. The New York times. Retrieved February 15, 2014. Jump up ^ “Document Describes Eavesdropping on American Law Firm”. The New York Times. February 17, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014. Jump up ^ Glenn Greenwald and Ryan Gallagher (February 18, 2014). “Snowden Documents Reveal Covert Surveillance and Pressure Tactics Aimed at WikiLeaks and Its Supporters”. The Intercept. Retrieved February 18, 2014. Jump up ^ Sabine Siebold (February 23, 2014). “U.S. now bugging German ministers in place of Merkel: report”. Reuters. Retrieved February 25, 2014. Jump up ^ “Merkel’s aides now on NSA radar, claims Dutch news report”. Germany News.Net. February 24, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014. Jump up ^ Ryan Gallagher and Glenn Greenwald (February 24, 2014). “How Covert Agents Infiltrate the Internet to Manipulate, Deceive, and Destroy Reputations”. The Intercept. Retrieved February 24, 2014. Jump up ^ “Snowden-Enthüllungen: NSA plant Schadsoftware für die Massen”. Der Spiegel (in German). 12 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. Jump up ^ “NSA-Dokumente: So knackt der Geheimdienst Internetkonten; This photo gallery explains the function of the QUANTUM programm described in the 2014-02-12 The Intecept Article How the NSA Plans to Infect ‘Millions’ of Computers with Malware by Ryan Gallagher and Glenn Greenwald”. Der Spiegel (in German). 12 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. Jump up ^ “NSA-Geheimdokumente: “Vorwärtsverteidigung” mit QFIRE; This photo gallery explains the QFIRE pilot programm designed to attack internet connections within the framework of so called forward defense measures. The photo gallery is related to the 2014-02-12 The Intecept Article How the NSA Plans to Infect ‘Millions’ of Computers with Malware by Ryan Gallagher and Glenn Greenwald.”. Der Spiegel. 30 December 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. Jump up ^ Spencer Ackerman and James Ball (February 27, 2014). “UK spy agency intercepted webcam images of millions of Yahoo users”. The Guardian. Retrieved February 27, 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b Ryan Gallagher and Greenwald (March 12, 2014). “How the NSA Plans to Infect ‘Millions’ of Computers with Malware”. The Intercept. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ Gallagher, Ryan (15 March 2014). “Compare the NSA’s Facebook Malware Denial to its Own Secret Documents”. The Intercept. Retrieved 23 March 2014. Jump up ^ Gallagher, Sean (12 March 2014). “NSA’s automated hacking engine offers hands-free pwning of the world”. Ars Technica. Retrieved 23 March 2014. Jump up ^ “Thousands of Implants”. The Intercept. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ “Industrial-Scale Exploitation”. The Intercept. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ “NSA Technology Directorate Analysis of Converged Data”. The Intercept. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ “There Is More Than One Way to Quantum”. The Intercept. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ “NSA Phishing Tactics and Man in the Middle Attacks”. The Intercept. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ “Quantum Insert Diagrams”. The Intercept. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ “TURBINE and TURMOIL”. The Intercept. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ “The NSA and GCHQ’s QUANTUMTHEORY Hacking Tactics”. The Intercept. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ “Menwith Hill Station Leverages XKeyscore for Quantum Against Yahoo and Hotmail”. The Intercept. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ “Five Eyes Hacking Large Routers”. The Intercept. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ “Selector Types”. The Intercept. March 12, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ “VPN and VOIP Exploitation With HAMMERCHANT and HAMMERSTEIN”. The Intercept. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014. Jump up ^ “Thousands of Implants”. The Intercept. March 12, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014. Jump up ^ Lengell, Sean (11 March 2014). “Dianne Feinstein: CIA spied on Senate Intelligence Committee”. The Washington Examiner. Retrieved 22 March 2014. Jump up ^ Barton Gellman and Ashkan Soltani (March 18, 2014). “NSA surveillance program reaches ‘into the past’ to retrieve, replay phone calls”. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 18, 2014. Jump up ^ Christopher Ingraham and Andrea Peterson (19 March 2014). “NSA PowerPoint art: Greatest hits, vol. 1”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 March 2014. Jump up ^ “Abhörprogramm Mystic: NSA schneidet alle Telefonate eines Landes mit”. Der Spiegel (in German). 18 March 2014. Retrieved 19 March 2014. Jump up ^ “NSA symbolizes data-collection program with wizard”. The Washington Post. 18 March. Retrieved 20 March 2014. Jump up ^ “Description of data collection by NSA under MYSTIC”. The Washington Post. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014. Jump up ^ “Adding a country to MYSTIC efforts mentioned”. The Washington Post. 18 March 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014. Jump up ^ “Quand les Canadiens partent en chasse de ” Babar “”. Le Monde. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2014. Jump up ^ Follorou, Jacques (20 March 2014). “Espionnage : comment Orange et les services secrets coopèrent” (in French). Le Monde. Retrieved 22 March 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b David E. Sanger and Nicole Perlroth (22 March 2014). “N.S.A. Breached Chinese Servers Seen as Security Threat”. The New York Times. Retrieved 23 March 2014. Jump up ^ “Slides Describe Mission Involving Huawei”. The New York Times. 22 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. Jump up ^ Jacobs, Andrew (24 March 2014). “After Reports on N.S.A., China Urges End to Spying”. The New York Times. Retrieved 25 March 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b c “Targeting Huawei: NSA Spied on Chinese Government and Networking Firm”. Der Spiegel. 23 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014. Jump up ^ Ryan Gallagher and Peter Maass (22 March 2014). “Inside the NSA’s Secret Efforts to Hunt and Hack System Administrators”. The Intercept. Retrieved 22 March 2014. Jump up ^ “I Hunt Sys Admins”. The Intercept. 20 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Gallagher, Ryan. “Der Spiegel: NSA Put Merkel on List of 122 Targeted Leaders”. The Intercept. Retrieved 30 March 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Laura Poitras, Marcel Rosenbach and Holger Stark (28 March 2014). “‘A’ for Angela Merkel: GCHQ and NSA Targeted Private German Companies”. Der SPIEGEL. Retrieved 30 March 2014. Jump up ^ Volz Dustin, Dustin (April 30, 2014). “Edward Snowden: NSA Spies Most on Americans”. National Journal. Retrieved May 5, 2014. Jump up ^ Gallagher, Sean (2014-05-14). “Photos of an NSA “upgrade” factory show Cisco router getting implant”. Ars Technica. Retrieved 2014-08-03. ^ Jump up to: a b Devereaux, Ryan; Greenwald, Glenn; Poitras, Laura (May 19, 2014). “Data Pirates of the Caribbean: The NSA Is Recording Every Cell Phone Call in the Bahamas”. The Intercept. First Look Media. Retrieved May 21, 2014. Jump up ^ Schonfeld, Zach (May 23, 2014). “The Intercept Wouldn’t Reveal a Country the U.S. Is Spying On, So WikiLeaks Did Instead”. Newsweek. Retrieved May 26, 2014. Jump up ^ Risen, James; Poitras, Laura (May 31, 2014). “N.S.A. Collecting Millions of Faces From Web Images”. Retrieved June 19, 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Garside, Juliette (6 June 2014). “Vodafone reveals existence of secret wires that allow state surveillance”. The Guardian. Retrieved 6 June 2014. Jump up ^ Revealed: Beyond top secret British intelligence Middleeast Internet spy base, theregister.co.uk Jump up ^ “NSA ‘third party’ partners tap the Internet backbone in global surveillance program”. Dagbladet Information (Dagbladet Information). June 19, 2014. Retrieved June 19, 2014. Jump up ^ Jensen, Kristian (June 19, 2014). “Documentation: The Snowden files”. Dagbladet Information (Dagbladet Information). Retrieved June 19, 2014. Jump up ^ Gallagher, Ryan (June 19, 2014). “How Secret Partners Expand NSA’s Surveillance Dragnet”. The Intercept (The Intercept). Retrieved June 18, 2014. Jump up ^ “BBC News – Germany arrests man suspected of spying for US”. Bbc.com. 2014-07-04. Retrieved 2014-08-03. Jump up ^ Lowenstein, Antony (10 July 2014). “The ultimate goal of the NSA is total population control”. The Guardian. Retrieved 13 July 2014. Jump up ^ Gellman, Barton; Tate, Julie; Soltani, Ashkan (5 July 2013). “In NSA-intercepted data, those not targeted far outnumber the foreigners who are”. The Washington Post. Jump up ^ “BBC News – US spying row: Germany investigates new case”. Bbc.com. 2014-07-09. Retrieved 2014-08-03. Jump up ^ AFP in Berlin (2014-07-17). “CIA station chief ordered out of Germany has left, US confirms | World news”. theguardian.com. Retrieved 2014-08-03. Jump up ^ Farivar, Cyrus (Aug 20, 2014). “Meet John Tye: the kinder, gentler, and by-the-book whistleblower”. Ars Technica. Jump up ^ “USA must not persecute whistleblower Edward Snowden”. Amnesty International. Retrieved August 16, 2013. Jump up ^ “US: Statement on Protection of Whistleblowers in Security Sector”. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved August 16, 2013. Jump up ^ Transparency International Germany. “Transparency International Germany: Whistleblower Prize 2013 for Edward Snowden”. Transparency International. Retrieved August 16, 2013. Jump up ^ “US needs to protect whistleblowers and journalists”. Index on Censorship. Retrieved August 16, 2013. Jump up ^ Mike Dorning and Chris Strohm (August 23, 2013). “Court Finding of Domestic Spying Risks Obama Credibility”. Bloomberg Television. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Adam Serwer (08/07/13). “Obama says ‘there is no spying on Americans,’ but what about our data?”. MSNBC. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ “Press Briefing by Press Secretary Jay Carney, 6/13/2013”. White House. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ “Holder: Leaks damaged U.S. security”. CNN. June 15, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ “Cameron says may act against press over spy leaks”. Reuters. October 28, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Rob Williams (October 10, 2013). “Snowden leaks published by the Guardian were damaging to security, says Nick Clegg”. London: The Independent. Retrieved January 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Janet Stobart (June 10, 2013). “Britain denies using PRISM to get around domestic spying laws”. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ “Intelligence sharing lawful, Hague says after US talks”. BBC. June 12, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ “Abbott offers Australian spy assurance”. The Australian. October 31, 2013. Retrieved December 30, 2013. Jump up ^ Pearlman, Jonathan (January 29, 2014). “Tony Abbott says ABC unpatriotic”. London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ “Australia’s Tony Abbott calls broadcaster ABC unpatriotic”. BBC. January 29, 2014. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ O’Malley, Nick (January 23, 2014). “Julie Bishop welcomes US intelligence reforms, lashes Edward Snowden”. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Nicholson, Brendan (January 23, 2014). “Allied spying saves lives: Julie Bishop”. The Australian. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ “German Chancellor Merkel Defends Work of Intelligence Agencies”. Der Spiegel. July 10, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ “Germany’s Merkel rejects NSA-Stasi comparison”. Associated Press. July 10, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Rayman, Noah (December 18, 2013). “Merkel Compared NSA To Stasi in Complaint To Obama”. Time. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Ewen MacAskill and James Ball. “Portrait of the NSA: no detail too small in quest for total surveillance”. The Guardian. Retrieved February 1, 2014. “Amid the German protestations of outrage over US eavesdropping on Merkel and other Germans, Berlin is using the controversy as leverage for an upgrade to 5-Eyes.” Jump up ^ “German Interior Minister Friedrich Discusses NSA Spying Affair”. Der Spiegel. August 28, 2013. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ “Itching to ask: What does Merkel know about NSA surveillance?”. Deutsche Welle. July 17, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2014. Jump up ^ Barkin, Noah (6 April 2014). “Merkel ally says U.S. assurances on NSA spying ‘insufficient'”. Reuters. Retrieved 6 April 2014. Jump up ^ “Carl Bildt defends FRA surveillance as ‘necessary'”. Sveriges Radio. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ “FRA spionerar på Ryssland åt USA”. TT/Sydsvenskan. Retrieved 10 March 2014. Jump up ^ “FRA spionerar på Ryssland åt USA”. TT/Ny Teknik. Retrieved 10 March 2014. Jump up ^ van Tartwijk, Maarten (February 11, 2014). “Dutch Minister of Interior Fights for His Political Life”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 11, 2014. Jump up ^ Coevert, Annemarie (February 11, 2014). “Plasterk biedt excuses aan, maar verdedigt achterhouden informatie” (in Dutch). NRC Handelsblad. Retrieved February 11, 2014. Jump up ^ “Valget skal vindes på at vise forskellen”. PioPio. Retrieved 26 March 2014. Jump up ^ “Thorning afviser ulovlig amerikansk overvågning”. Berlingske. Retrieved 26 March 2014. Jump up ^ “Germany probes secret service ties with US agencies”. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ William Boston (July 22, 2013). “Germany to Review Spy Service’s Ties With NSA”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Mike Levine. “White House Picks Panel to Review NSA Programs”. ABC News. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Johnson, Luke (August 13, 2013). “James Clapper, Director of National Intelligence Who Misled Congress, To Establish Surveillance Review Group”. Huffington Post. Retrieved August 13, 2013. Jump up ^ Nick Hopkins, Patrick Wintour, Rowena Mason and Matthew Taylor (October 17, 2013). “Extent of spy agencies’ surveillance to be investigated by parliamentary body”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 28, 2013. Jump up ^ Stewart Bell (December 9, 2013). “Review underway into allegations that national intelligence agency illegally spied on Canadians”. National Post. Retrieved December 30, 2013. Jump up ^ Edward Lucas (January 23, 2014), The Snowden Operation: Inside the West’s Greatest Intelligence Disaster ASIN:B00I0W61OY Jump up ^ Bob Cesca (January 27, 2014), NSA Agent’s Identity Exposed in Poorly-Redacted Snowden Document The Daily Banter]] Jump up ^ Andrei Soldatov (January 8, 2014), ИТОГИ ГОДА. СПЕЦСЛУЖБЫ ежедневный журнал (in Russian) Jump up ^ Montevideo Statement on the Future of Internet Cooperation ICANN October 7, 2013 ^ Jump up to: a b c Ewen MacAskill and Dominic Rushe. “Snowden document reveals key role of companies in NSA data collection”. The Guardian. Retrieved December 22, 2013. Jump up ^ “Collateral Murder, 5 Apr 2010”. WikiLeaks. April 5, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2014. Jump up ^ “Afghan War diary”. WikiLeaks. July 25, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2014. Jump up ^ “Iraq War logs”. WikiLeaks. October 22, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2014. Jump up ^ “Secret US Embassy Cables”. WikiLeaks. November 28, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2014. Jump up ^ “Gitmo Files”. WikiLeaks. April 24, 2011. Retrieved January 1, 2014. External links[edit] Media related to 2013 Mass Surveillance Disclosures at Wikimedia Commons “Global Surveillance. An annotated and categorized “overview of the revelations following the leaks by the whistleblower Edward Snowden. There are also some links to comments and followups”. By Oslo University Library. “The NSA Files”. The Guardian (London). June 8, 2013. NSA Spying Scandal – Der Spiegel Six months of revelations on NSA by the Washington Post’s Kennedy Elliott and Terri Rupar on December 23, 2013 Politico Staff. “NSA leaks cause flood of political problems.” Politico. June 13, 2013. “Does NSA’s Tracfin risk lives?.” WallStreet & Technology, March 14, 2014. NSA inspector general report on email and internet data collection under Stellar Wind as provided by The Guardian on June 27, 2013. “Putin talks NSA, Syria, Iran, drones in exclusive RT interview (FULL VIDEO).” Russia Today. June 12, 2013. Ackerman, Spencer. “NSA warned to rein in surveillance as agency reveals even greater scope.” The Guardian. July 17, 2013. Ackerman, Spencer. “Slew of court challenges threaten NSA’s relationship with tech firms.” The Guardian. Wednesday July 17, 2013. Ackerman, Spencer and Paul Lewis. “NSA amendment’s narrow defeat spurs privacy advocates for surveillance fight.” The Guardian. Thursday July 25, 2013. Ackerman, Spencer and Dan Roberts. “US embassy closures used to bolster case for NSA surveillance programs.” The Guardian. Monday August 5, 2013. Two of the ‘trips’ (numbers 29 and 76) in the 2006 book, ‘No Holiday’, Cohen, Martin. No Holiday. New York: Disinformation Company Ltd. ISBN 978-1-932857-29-0. are investigating the NSA and its activities. Greenwald, Glenn. “Members of Congress denied access to basic information about NSA.” The Guardian. Sunday August 4, 2013. “Obama’s former adviser ridicules statement that NSA doesn’t spy on Americans.” (Archive) Russia Today. August 9, 2013. MacAskill, Ewen. “Justice Department fails in bid to delay landmark case on NSA collection.” The Guardian. Thursday July 25, 2013. Rushe, Dominic. “Microsoft pushes Eric Holder to lift block on public information sharing.” The Guardian. Tuesday July 16, 2013. Perez, Evan. “Documents shed light on U.S. surveillance programs.” (Archive) CNN. August 9, 2013. Gellman, Barton. “NSA broke privacy rules thousands of times per year, audit finds.” Washington Post. Thursday August 15, 2013. Roberts, Dan and Robert Booth. “NSA defenders: embassy closures followed pre-9/11 levels of ‘chatter’.” The Guardian. Sunday August 4, 2013. Greenwald, Glenn. “The crux of the NSA story in one phrase: ‘collect it all’.” The Guardian. Monday July 15, 2013. Sanchez, Julian. “Five things Snowden leaks revealed about NSA’s original warrantless wiretaps.” Ars Technica. July 9, 2013. Forero, Juan. “Paper reveals NSA ops in Latin America.” Washington Post. July 9, 2013. Jabour, Bridie. “Telstra signed deal that would have allowed US spying.” The Guardian. Friday July 12, 2013. Ackerman, Spencer. “White House stays silent on renewal of NSA data collection order.” The Guardian. Thursday July 18, 2013. Naughton, John. “Edward Snowden’s not the story. The fate of the internet is.” The Guardian. July 28, 2013. “Edward Snowden NSA files: secret surveillance and our revelations so far – Leaked National Security Agency documents have led to several hundred Guardian stories on electronic privacy and the state” by the Guardian’s James Ball on August 21, 2013 2013-07-29 Letter of FISA Court president Reggie B. Walton to the Chairman of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee Patrick J. Leahy about certain operations of the FISA Court; among other things the process of accepting, modifying and/or rejecting surveillance measures proposed by the U.S. government, the interaction between the FISA Court and the U.S. government, the appearance of non-governmental parties before the court and the process used by the Court to consider and resolve any instances where the government entities notifies the court of compliance concerns with any of the FISA authorities. “The Spy Files”. Wikileaks. December 1, 2011. A collection of documents relating to surveillance. “The Spy Files”. Wikileaks. December 8, 2011. Part 2 of the above. “Spy Files 3”. Wikileaks. September 4, 2013. Part 3 of the above. “Veja os documentos ultrassecretos que comprovam espionagem a Dilma” (in Portuguese). September 2, 2013. Retrieved September 4, 2013. Documents relating to the surveillance against Dilma Roussef and Enrique Peña Nieto NSA surveillance: A guide to staying secure – The NSA has huge capabilities – and if it wants in to your computer, it’s in. With that in mind, here are five ways to stay safe by The Guardian’s Bruce Schneier on September 5, 2013. 2014-01-04 Al Jazeera’s “Listening Post – The Snowden saga: Spies, secrets and security – A look back at the biggest media story of 2013 – Edward Snowden and the NSA surveillance programme.” on YouTube The first part of the broadcast retells the global surveillance in the year 2013 and the second part shows an interview former NSA general counsel Stewart Baker. The NSA Archive by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) – All documents released since June 5, 2013—both by the media and the U.S. government—are housed in this database established and operated by the ACLU. ACLU article “Introducing the ACLU’s NSA Documents Database” by the ACLU’s Emily Weinrebe on April 3, 2014 on the above NSA Archive established and operated by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). NSA Primary Sources – A List of all leaks and links to media articles related to the disclosures based on the material of Edward Snowden sorted by Date, Document and Media outlet established and operated by the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/05/nsa-how-to-remain-secure-surveillance

Now that we have enough details about how the NSA eavesdrops on the internet, including today’s disclosures of the NSA’s deliberate weakening of cryptographic systems, we can finally start to figure out how to protect ourselves.

For the past two weeks, I have been working with the Guardian on NSA stories, and have read hundreds of top-secret NSA documents provided by whistleblower Edward Snowden. I wasn’t part of today’s story – it was in process well before I showed up – but everything I read confirms what the Guardian is reporting.

At this point, I feel I can provide some advice for keeping secure against such an adversary.

The primary way the NSA eavesdrops on internet communications is in the network. That’s where their capabilities best scale. They have invested in enormous programs to automatically collect and analyze network traffic. Anything that requires them to attack individual endpoint computers is significantly more costly and risky for them, and they will do those things carefully and sparingly.

Leveraging its secret agreements with telecommunications companies – all the US and UK ones, and many other “partners” around the world – the NSA gets access to the communications trunks that move internet traffic. In cases where it doesn’t have that sort of friendly access, it does its best to surreptitiously monitor communications channels: tapping undersea cables, intercepting satellite communications, and so on.

That’s an enormous amount of data, and the NSA has equivalently enormous capabilities to quickly sift through it all, looking for interesting traffic. “Interesting” can be defined in many ways: by the source, the destination, the content, the individuals involved, and so on. This data is funneled into the vast NSA system for future analysis.

The NSA collects much more metadata about internet traffic: who is talking to whom, when, how much, and by what mode of communication. Metadata is a lot easier to store and analyze than content. It can be extremely personal to the individual, and is enormously valuable intelligence.

The Systems Intelligence Directorate is in charge of data collection, and the resources it devotes to this is staggering. I read status report after status report about these programs, discussing capabilities, operational details, planned upgrades, and so on. Each individual problem – recovering electronic signals from fiber, keeping up with the terabyte streams as they go by, filtering out the interesting stuff – has its own group dedicated to solving it. Its reach is global.

The NSA also attacks network devices directly: routers, switches, firewalls, etc. Most of these devices have surveillance capabilities already built in; the trick is to surreptitiously turn them on. This is an especially fruitful avenue of attack; routers are updated less frequently, tend not to have security software installed on them, and are generally ignored as a vulnerability.

The NSA also devotes considerable resources to attacking endpoint computers. This kind of thing is done by its TAO – Tailored Access Operations – group. TAO has a menu of exploits it can serve up against your computer – whether you’re running Windows, Mac OS, Linux, iOS, or something else – and a variety of tricks to get them on to your computer. Your anti-virus software won’t detect them, and you’d have trouble finding them even if you knew where to look. These are hacker tools designed by hackers with an essentially unlimited budget. What I took away from reading the Snowden documents was that if the NSA wants in to your computer, it’s in. Period.

The NSA deals with any encrypted data it encounters more by subverting the underlying cryptography than by leveraging any secret mathematical breakthroughs. First, there’s a lot of bad cryptography out there. If it finds an internet connection protected by MS-CHAP, for example, that’s easy to break and recover the key. It exploits poorly chosen user passwords, using the same dictionary attacks hackers use in the unclassified world.

As was revealed today, the NSA also works with security product vendors to ensure that commercial encryption products are broken in secret ways that only it knows about. We know this has happened historically: CryptoAG and Lotus Notes are the most public examples, and there is evidence of a back door in Windows. A few people have told me some recent stories about their experiences, and I plan to write about them soon. Basically, the NSA asks companies to subtly change their products in undetectable ways: making the random number generator less random, leaking the key somehow, adding a common exponent to a public-key exchange protocol, and so on. If the back door is discovered, it’s explained away as a mistake. And as we now know, the NSA has enjoyed enormous success from this program.

TAO also hacks into computers to recover long-term keys. So if you’re running a VPN that uses a complex shared secret to protect your data and the NSA decides it cares, it might try to steal that secret. This kind of thing is only done against high-value targets.

How do you communicate securely against such an adversary? Snowden said it in an online Q&A soon after he made his first document public: “Encryption works. Properly implemented strong crypto systems are one of the few things that you can rely on.”

I believe this is true, despite today’s revelations and tantalizing hints of “groundbreaking cryptanalytic capabilities” made by James Clapper, the director of national intelligence in another top-secret document. Those capabilities involve deliberately weakening the cryptography.

Snowden’s follow-on sentence is equally important: “Unfortunately, endpoint security is so terrifically weak that NSA can frequently find ways around it.”

Endpoint means the software you’re using, the computer you’re using it on, and the local network you’re using it in. If the NSA can modify the encryption algorithm or drop a Trojan on your computer, all the cryptography in the world doesn’t matter at all. If you want to remain secure against the NSA, you need to do your best to ensure that the encryption can operate unimpeded.

With all this in mind, I have five pieces of advice:

1) Hide in the network. Implement hidden services. Use Tor to anonymize yourself. Yes, the NSA targets Tor users, but it’s work for them. The less obvious you are, the safer you are.

2) Encrypt your communications. Use TLS. Use IPsec. Again, while it’s true that the NSA targets encrypted connections – and it may have explicit exploits against these protocols – you’re much better protected than if you communicate in the clear.

3) Assume that while your computer can be compromised, it would take work and risk on the part of the NSA – so it probably isn’t. If you have something really important, use an air gap. Since I started working with the Snowden documents, I bought a new computer that has never been connected to the internet. If I want to transfer a file, I encrypt the file on the secure computer and walk it over to my internet computer, using a USB stick. To decrypt something, I reverse the process. This might not be bulletproof, but it’s pretty good.

4) Be suspicious of commercial encryption software, especially from large vendors. My guess is that most encryption products from large US companies have NSA-friendly back doors, and many foreign ones probably do as well. It’s prudent to assume that foreign products also have foreign-installed backdoors. Closed-source software is easier for the NSA to backdoor than open-source software. Systems relying on master secrets are vulnerable to the NSA, through either legal or more clandestine means.

5) Try to use public-domain encryption that has to be compatible with other implementations. For example, it’s harder for the NSA to backdoor TLS than BitLocker, because any vendor’s TLS has to be compatible with every other vendor’s TLS, while BitLocker only has to be compatible with itself, giving the NSA a lot more freedom to make changes. And because BitLocker is proprietary, it’s far less likely those changes will be discovered. Prefer symmetric cryptography over public-key cryptography. Prefer conventional discrete-log-based systems over elliptic-curve systems; the latter have constants that the NSA influences when they can.

Since I started working with Snowden’s documents, I have been using GPG, Silent Circle, Tails, OTR, TrueCrypt, BleachBit, and a few other things I’m not going to write about. There’s an undocumented encryption feature in my Password Safe program from the command line); I’ve been using that as well.

I understand that most of this is impossible for the typical internet user. Even I don’t use all these tools for most everything I am working on. And I’m still primarily on Windows, unfortunately. Linux would be safer.

The NSA has turned the fabric of the internet into a vast surveillance platform, but they are not magical. They’re limited by the same economic realities as the rest of us, and our best defense is to make surveillance of us as expensive as possible.

Trust the math. Encryption is your friend. Use it well, and do your best to ensure that nothing can compromise it. That’s how you can remain secure even in the face of the NSA.

http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/jul/28/edward-snowden-death-of-internet

Repeat after me: Edward Snowden is not the story. The story is what he has revealed about the hidden wiring of our networked world. This insight seems to have escaped most of the world’s mainstream media, for reasons that escape me but would not have surprised Evelyn Waugh, whose contempt for journalists was one of his few endearing characteristics. The obvious explanations are: incorrigible ignorance; the imperative to personalise stories; or gullibility in swallowing US government spin, which brands Snowden as a spy rather than a whistleblower.

In a way, it doesn’t matter why the media lost the scent. What matters is that they did. So as a public service, let us summarise what Snowden has achieved thus far.

Without him, we would not know how the National Security Agency (NSA) had been able to access the emails, Facebook accounts and videos of citizens across the world; or how it had secretly acquired the phone records of millions of Americans; or how, through a secret court, it has been able to bend nine US internet companies to its demands for access to their users’ data.

Similarly, without Snowden, we would not be debating whether the US government should have turned surveillance into a huge, privatised business, offering data-mining contracts to private contractors such as Booz Allen Hamilton and, in the process, high-level security clearance to thousands of people who shouldn’t have it. Nor would there be – finally – a serious debate between Europe (excluding the UK, which in these matters is just an overseas franchise of the US) and the United States about where the proper balance between freedom and security lies.

These are pretty significant outcomes and they’re just the first-order consequences of Snowden’s activities. As far as most of our mass media are concerned, though, they have gone largely unremarked. Instead, we have been fed a constant stream of journalistic pap – speculation about Snowden’s travel plans, asylum requests, state of mind, physical appearance, etc. The “human interest” angle has trumped the real story, which is what the NSA revelations tell us about how our networked world actually works and the direction in which it is heading.

As an antidote, here are some of the things we should be thinking about as a result of what we have learned so far.

The first is that the days of the internet as a truly global network are numbered. It was always a possibility that the system would eventually be Balkanised, ie divided into a number of geographical or jurisdiction-determined subnets as societies such as China, Russia, Iran and other Islamic states decided that they needed to control how their citizens communicated. Now, Balkanisation is a certainty.

Second, the issue of internet governance is about to become very contentious. Given what we now know about how the US and its satraps have been abusing their privileged position in the global infrastructure, the idea that the western powers can be allowed to continue to control it has become untenable.

Third, as Evgeny Morozov has pointed out, the Obama administration’s “internet freedom agenda” has been exposed as patronising cant. “Today,” he writes, “the rhetoric of the ‘internet freedom agenda’ looks as trustworthy as George Bush’s ‘freedom agenda’ after Abu Ghraib.”

That’s all at nation-state level. But the Snowden revelations also have implications for you and me.

They tell us, for example, that no US-based internet company can be trusted to protect our privacy or data. The fact is that Google, Facebook, Yahoo, Amazon, Apple and Microsoft are all integral components of the US cyber-surveillance system. Nothing, but nothing, that is stored in their “cloud” services can be guaranteed to be safe from surveillance or from illicit downloading by employees of the consultancies employed by the NSA. That means that if you’re thinking of outsourcing your troublesome IT operations to, say, Google or Microsoft, then think again.

And if you think that that sounds like the paranoid fantasising of a newspaper columnist, then consider what Neelie Kroes, vice-president of the European Commission, had to say on the matter recently. “If businesses or governments think they might be spied on,” she said, “they will have less reason to trust the cloud, and it will be cloud providers who ultimately miss out. Why would you pay someone else to hold your commercial or other secrets, if you suspect or know they are being shared against your wishes? Front or back door – it doesn’t matter – any smart person doesn’t want the information shared at all. Customers will act rationally and providers will miss out on a great opportunity.”

Spot on. So when your chief information officer proposes to use the Amazon or Google cloud as a data-store for your company’s confidential documents, tell him where to file the proposal. In the shredder.

All this mess about what I call “The Snowden Papers”, makes me remind about Daniel Ellsberg and the so famous “Pentagon Papers” wich unmasked USA genocide politics and warfare at Vietnam. I’m evoking Ellsberg, because I was really proud of NEW YORK TIMES for publishing the “PENTAGON PAPERS”. It was 42 years ago. Now we’re facing an excusable citizenship offense. Obama drove the N.S.A., C.I.A., F.I.S.A., etc., to stain Democracy. After the G.W.Bush lies about Iraq atomic power, comes what we should call “OBAMAGATE”. True Democracy lovers are terribly DISAPPOINTED.

Advertisements