Just like I predicted in the Origin series 2 years ago!

Nikodem Poplawski (born 1975) is a theoretical physicist at Indiana University, most widely noted for the proposal that our Universe may be located within a black hole which itself exists in an even larger universe.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] Poplawski’s theory presents an alternative to the popular theory that within black holes lie gravitational singularities and provides a theoretical explanation, based on spacetime torsion, for a cosmological scenario of fecund universes proposed earlier by Lee Smolin.[8]

Poplawski appeared in Episode 5 of a Discovery Channel show, Curiosity, titled “Parallel Universes – Are They Real?”, which aired in September 2011.[9]

Based on analysis of the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble Theory of Gravity’s explanation of torsion as a result of particle spin, Poplawski suggests that when matter density reaches more than about 1050 kilograms per cubic meter inside a black hole, torsion manifests itself as a force that counters gravity, and that, rather than forming a singularity, it quickly rebounds like a coiled spring to which pressure has been applied.[10][11][12] Poplawski theorizes that this extraordinary level of torsion may account for what is observed as the current expansion of the spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic universe, the prevailing explanation for which is known as cosmic inflation.[13] The rotation of a black hole would influence the spacetime inside it, resulting in a “preferred direction” within our universe, and therefore, Poplawski suggests that observable anomalies in the rotation of spiral galaxies and violations of Lorentz symmetry might provide evidence for his theory. Neutrinos which have been observed oscillating from one type to another have been suggested as the occurrence of such a violation.

The theory further suggests that every black hole becomes a wormhole that contains a new, expanding universe which forms from the big bounce in the black hole.[14][15] Black holes at the center of the Milky Way and other galaxies may thus be bridges to other universes.[16][17][18] Accordingly, our own Universe may be the interior of a black hole existing inside another universe, as proposed earlier by Raj Pathria.[19]

A black-hole cosmology (also called Schwarzschild cosmology or black-hole cosmological model) is a cosmological model in which the observable universe is the interior of a black hole. Such models were originally proposed by theoretical physicist Raj Pathria,[1] and concurrently by mathematician I. J. Good.[2]

Any such model requires that the Hubble radius of the observable universe is equal to its Schwarzschild radius, that is, the product of its mass and the Schwarzschild proportionality constant. This is indeed known to be nearly the case; however, most cosmologists consider this close match a coincidence.[3]

In the version as originally proposed by Pathria and Good, and studied more recently by, among others, Nikodem Popławski, [4] the observable universe is the interior of a black hole existing as one of possibly many inside a larger universe, or multiverse.

According to general relativity, the gravitational collapse of a sufficiently compact mass forms a singular Schwarzschild black hole. In the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity, however, it forms a regular Einstein-Rosen bridge, or wormhole. Schwarzschild wormholes and Schwarzschild black holes are different, mathematical solutions of general relativity and the Einstein–Cartan theory. Yet for distant observers, the exteriors of both solutions with the same mass are indistinguishable. The Einstein–Cartan theory extends general relativity by removing a constraint of the symmetry of the affine connection and regarding its antisymmetric part, the torsion tensor, as a dynamical variable. Torsion naturally accounts for the quantum-mechanical, intrinsic angular momentum (spin) of matter. The minimal coupling between torsion and Dirac spinors generates a repulsive spin-spin interaction which is significant in fermionic matter at extremely high densities. Such an interaction prevents the formation of a gravitational singularity. Instead, the collapsing matter reaches an enormous but finite density and rebounds, forming the other side of an Einstein-Rosen bridge, which grows as a new universe.[5] Accordingly, the Big Bang was a nonsingular Big Bounce at which the universe had a finite, minimum scale factor.[6]

The Baum–Frampton model [edit]

This more recent cyclic model of 2007 makes a different technical assumption concerning the equation of state of the dark energy which relates pressure and density through a parameter w.[7][10] It assumes w < −1 (a condition called phantom energy) throughout a cycle, including at present. (By contrast, Steinhardt–Turok assume w is never less than −1.) In the Baum–Frampton model, a septillionth (or less) of a second before the would-be Big Rip, a turnaround occurs and only one causal patch is retained as our universe. The generic patch contains no quark, lepton or force carrier; only dark energy – and its entropy thereby vanishes. The adiabatic process of contraction of this much smaller universe takes place with constant vanishing entropy and with no matter including no black holes which disintegrated before turnaround.

The idea that the universe “comes back empty” is a central new idea of this cyclic model, and avoids many difficulties confronting matter in a contracting phase such as excessive structure formation, proliferation and expansion of black holes, as well as going through phase transitions such as those of QCD and electroweak symmetry restoration. Any of these would tend strongly to produce an unwanted premature bounce, simply to avoid violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The surprising w < −1 condition may be logically inevitable in a truly infinitely cyclic cosmology because of the entropy problem. Nevertheless, many technical back up calculations are necessary to confirm consistency of the approach. Although the model borrows ideas from string theory, it is not necessarily committed to strings, or to higher dimensions, yet such speculative devices may provide the most expeditious methods to investigate the internal consistency. The value of w in the Baum–Frampton model can be made arbitrarily close to, but must be less than, −1.

Cyclic model [edit]

More recent work has suggested the problem may be indirect evidence of a cyclic universe possibly as allowed by string theory. With every cycle of the universe (Big Bang then eventually a Big Crunch) taking about a trillion (1012) years, “the amount of matter and radiation in the universe is reset, but the cosmological constant is not. Instead, the cosmological constant gradually diminishes over many cycles to the small value observed today.”[19] Critics respond that, as the authors acknowledge in their paper, the model “entails … the same degree of tuning required in any cosmological model”.[20]

This cyclic model assumes a Universe with different states. To simplify, the view uses two states, the high energy state, and the lowest possible energy state. As an analogy, it is compared to an electron with different orbitals having different states, and as energy is released by the electron, the latter would tunnel to a lower energy state, or energy can be absorbed to allow the electron to tunnel to a higher energy state. If our Universe is a false vacuum, then it could tunnel to a lower state, that of a true vacuum. Since entropy won’t allow for energy levels in the Universe, which is a closed system, to go up, the entropic state of energy would reside in a lower energy state( meaning, entropy in this view is the act of energy to ooze to the true vacuum), the true vacuum. If so, then by the moment the Universe would tunnel to the true vacuum, the energy of the latter (which was once in the Universe) would then be in the Universe. With this, the Universe gets re-energized, causing The Big Bang.

Other cyclic models [edit]

Just now!

Martin Bojowald, an assistant professor of physics at Pennsylvania State University, published a study in July 2007 detailing work somewhat related to loop quantum gravity that claimed to mathematically solve the time before the Big Bang, which would give new weight to the oscillatory universe and Big Bounce theories.[4]

One of the main problems with the Big Bang theory is that at the moment of the Big Bang, there is a singularity of zero volume and infinite energy. This is normally interpreted as the end of the physics as we know it; in this case, of the theory of general relativity. This is why one expects quantum effects to become important and avoid the singularity.

However, research in loop quantum cosmology purported to show that a previously existing universe collapsed, not to the point of singularity, but to a point before that where the quantum effects of gravity become so strongly repulsive that the universe rebounds back out, forming a new branch. Throughout this collapse and bounce, the evolution is unitary.

Bojowald also claims that some properties of the universe that collapsed to form ours can also be determined. Some properties of the prior universe are not determinable however due to some kind of uncertainty principle.

This work is still in its early stages and very speculative. Some extensions by further scientists have been published in Physical Review Letters.[5]

In 2003, Peter Lynds has put forward a new cosmology model in which time is cyclic. In his theory our Universe will eventually stop expanding and then contract. Before becoming a singularity, as one would expect from Hawking’s black hole theory, the Universe would bounce. Lynds claims that a singularity would violate the second law of thermodynamics and this stops the Universe from being bounded by singularities. The Big Crunch would be avoided with a new Big Bang. Lynds suggests the exact history of the Universe would be repeated in each cycle in an eternal recurrence. Some critics argue that while the Universe may be cyclic, the histories would all be variants.[citation needed] Lynds’ theory has been dismissed by mainstream physicists for the lack of a mathematical model behind its philosophical considerations.[6]

In 2011, Nikodem Popławski showed that a nonsingular Big Bounce appears naturally in the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity.[7] This theory extends general relativity by removing a constraint of the symmetry of the affine connection and regarding its antisymmetric part, the torsion tensor, as a dynamical variable. The minimal coupling between torsion and Dirac spinors generates a spin-spin interaction which is significant in fermionic matter at extremely high densities. Such an interaction averts the unphysical Big Bang singularity, replacing it with a cusp-like bounce at a finite minimum scale factor, before which the Universe was contracting. This scenario also explains why the present Universe at largest scales appears spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic, providing a physical alternative to cosmic inflation.

## 1 responses to “The Cyclic Model of the Universe unified with Black Hole Cosmology”

Seshavatharam UVS.

August 6th, 2013 at 12:09

Unknowingly the fundamental physical laws are being developed, being executed and being proven inside and under the background of a growing and light speed rotating black hole universe.