Wormhole Theory

 

 

Ronnie Chen of Hampton University wrote in a recent article that “Although Einstein’s General Relativity theory allows wormholes to exist, physicists have been trying for decades to construct them mathematically without breaking any other laws of physics. Most researchers agree that wormholes require “exotic matter”, stuff that is repelled by gravity, rather than attracted, but some have claimed ways around that problem. Now a report in the 27 July PRL shows that all wormholes, no matter how cleverly constructed, require exotic matter; a condition that many in the field are already working to satisfy.

Matt Visser of Washington University in St. Louis, states that “The good news about Lorentzian wormholes is that after about ten years of hard work we cannot prove that they don’t exist.” But a publication five years ago (J.L. Friedmann, K. Schleich, and D.M. Witt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1486 (1993)) showed that a large class of wormholes require exotic matter to keep them open. As stated, researchers haven’t given up, however, because exotic matter, the magic ingredient which has less energy than a pure vacuum, actually does exist, at least in small amounts, thanks to the ghostly virtual particles in certain quantum physics experiments.

However, no one knows if enough exotic matter can exist in a concentration dense enough in a spatial area to create a large enough wormhole to constitute multi-universal travel or trans-universal travel. An attempt to sidestep the problem, a number of theorists have claimed to construct special wormholes that do not require exotic matter. In their PRL paper, Visser and David Hochberg, of the Laboratory for Space Astrophysics and Fundamental Physics in Madrid, Spain, show that all wormholes, even time-dependent and asymmetric ones, require exotic matter, which in turn requires quantum mechanical effects. Visser is quoted as saying “You cannot just get away with normal classical physics,” Visser and Chen blame many of the contrary claims on the widespread confusion about the precise definition of a wormhole and the concept of “passing through” it.

Their approach was to rigorously define a wormhole “throat” (the narrowest point) and show that because light rays spread out as they emerge from it, there must be a kind of “antigravity”, the hallmark of exotic matter. In the process they found that time dependent wormholes actually have two throats, one for each direction of traffic, and they say that was one source of the confusion: A theoretical traveler could paradoxically pass the middle of the wormhole without actually reaching the throat for their direction. Part of the problem is the lack of a good physical picture for a dynamic wormhole, which is a complicated four-dimensional object; the usual image we see displayed in magazines and on the web only works for wormholes that don’t change in time. (see below)

Eanna Flanagan, of Cornell University has stated that the requirement of exotic matter has been “pretty well understood in the community,” despite the number of contrary papers and the lack of an air-tight proof. But the new work covers the bases quite explicitly by showing that requirement in a new and interesting way that supplements previous work, while also clarifying errors in other research.

 

This is a huge discovery from where I stand.

What I have been playing around with is rather simple; Most physicists I have spoken to, openly acknowledge the existence of millions of wormholes are most likely occurring at the Planck level. We don’t notice them because they are so small. In fact most of them exist at a sub-atomic level; so what if, two tiny strings approach each other. Much like what happens in the music store, when you strum an acoustic guitar string, all the other guitars begin to resonate their strings at the exact frequency of the guitar string you strummed. So IF, as the two strings approach each other, they begin to match frequencies, until they intertwine at resonance. This could be the genesis of the formation of a wormhole. If there is spatial area between two universes, and it doesn’t have to be much, it is very probably that this spatial area is made up of exotic matter, separating the universes under normal conditions. But if, as these wormholes form, the exotic matter is introduced into the forming throats, they will stabilize into a fully connected conduit, gapping the spatial separation, be it space, time or what have you.

 

The Type I string theory has vibrating strings like the rest of the string theories. These strings vibrate both in closed loops, so that the strings have no ends, and as open strings with two loose ends. The open loose strings are what separates the Type I string theory from the other four string theories. This was a feature that the other string theories did not contain (The Type IIA and Type IIB string theories also contain open strings, however these strings are bound). But then I also take into account supergravity.

 

Supergravity theories were classified by Werner Nahm. In 10 dimensions, there are only two supergravity theories, which are denoted Type IIA and Type IIB. This similar denomination is not a coincidence; the Type IIA string theory has the Type IIA supergravity theory as its low-energy limit and the Type IIB string theory gives rise to Type IIB supergravity. The heterotic SO(32) and heterotic E8×E8 string theories also reduce to Type IIA and Type IIB supergravity in the low-energy limit. This suggests that there may indeed be a relation between the heterotic/Type I theories and the Type II theories.

 

String theory includes both open strings, which have two distinct endpoints, and closed strings making a complete loop. The two types of string behave in slightly different ways, yielding two different spectra. For example, in most string theories, one of the closed string modes is the graviton, and one of the open string modes is the photon. Because the two ends of an open string can always meet and connect, forming a closed string, there are no string theories without closed strings. But no one has suggested that strings can also pair, form a duality, and co-resonate. And still better, there is nothing really in any of the theories that prevents this from occurring.

 

Edward Witten outlined the following relationship:

 

The Type IIA supergravity (corresponding to the heterotic SO(32) and Type IIA string theories) can be obtained by dimensional reduction from the single unique eleven-dimensional supergravity theory. This means that if one studied supergravity on an eleven-dimensional spacetime that looks like the product of a ten-dimensional spacetime with another very small one-dimensional manifold, one gets the Type IIA supergravity theory. (And the Type IIB supergravity theory can be obtained by using T-duality.) However, eleven-dimensional supergravity is not consistent on its own, it just doesn’t make sense at extremely high energy, and likely requires some form of completion. It seems plausible, then, that there is some quantum theory (M-theory) in eleven-dimensions which gives rise at low energies to eleven-dimensional supergravity, and is related to ten-dimensional string theory by dimensional reduction. Dimensional reduction to a circle yields the Type IIA string theory, and dimensional reduction to a line segment yields the heterotic SO(32) string theory. String theory has its origins in the dual resonance model that was first proposed by Gabriele Veneziano which described the strongly interacting hadrons as strings. But strings are associated with subatomic particles, but what if the string like manifestation is a more universal concept?

 

It is a fundamental fact of the physics of light that, the more energy a photon carries, the smaller a wavelength it has. For instance, visible light has a wavelength of around a few hundred nanometers, while the much more energetic gamma rays have a wavelength about the size of an atomic nucleus. The Planck energy and the Planck length are related in that a photon would need to have a Planck-scale energy value in order to have a wavelength as small as the Planck length.

 

To make things even more complicated, even if we could create a photon this energetic, we could not use it to precisely measure something at the Planck scale as it would be so energetic that the photon would collapse into a black hole before it returned any information. Thus, many physicists believe that the Planck scale represents some sort of fundamental limit on how small the distances we can probe are. We have of course talked at length about this. The Planck length may be the smallest physically meaningful size scale there is, in which case (and Allen will groove on this)  the universe can be thought of as a tapestry of “pixels” each a Planck length in diameter.

 

The Planck energy scale is almost unimaginably large, while the Planck size scale is almost unimaginably small. The Planck energy is about a quintillion times larger than the energies achievable in our very best particle accelerators, which are used to create and observe exotic subatomic particles. A particle accelerator powerful enough to probe the Planck scale directly would need to have a circumference similar in size to the orbit of Mars, constructed from about as much material as our Moon.

 

Since such a particle accelerator is not likely to be built in the foreseeable future, physicists look to other methods for probing the Planck scale. One is looking for gigantic “cosmic strings” which may have been created when the universe as a whole was so hot and small that it had Planck-level energies. This would have occurred in the first trillionth of a second after the Big Bang. Or the Big Pour In. But more on that in my paper on the Megaverse.

 

Now here is the real poser. Not all strings are Planck level strings. Hence, a 2 meter opening may not be all that rare of an occurrence as we might think. It just takes a whole lot more energy to form it. But let’s take a side trip into the phenomena known as the Quantum Vortex.

 

In physics, a quantum vortex is a topological defect exhibited in superfluids and superconductors. The existence of these quantum vortices were independently predicted by Richard Feynman and Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov in the 1950s. They were later observed experimentally in Type-II superconductors, liquid helium, and atomic gases. I know this seems like a wandering off course, but bear with me for a little bit.

 

A quantum vortex in a superfluid is different to one in a superconductor. The key similarity is that they are both topological defects, and they are both quantized. In addition, the makeup of each quantum vortex is neither superfluid nor superconductor, for each system. In a superfluid, a quantum vortex “carries” the angular momentum, thus allowing the superfluid to rotate; in a superconductor, the vortex carries the magnetic flux. This is an important thing or two things to keep in mind. So let’s go into a little deeper. It is vitally important for us to understand quantum effects in materials we can observe and record, so that we might apply them to areas in which we can’t, at least, not yet anyway. So try to stick with me on this.

 

Vortex in a superfluid

In a superfluid, a quantum vortex is a hole with the superfluid circulating around the vortex; the inside of the vortex may contain excited particles, air, vacuum, or possibly Mickey Mouse, it doesn’t really matter. What does matter, however, is that the thickness of the vortex depends upon the chemical make-up of the superfluid; in liquid helium, the thickness is on the order of a few Angstroms.

 

A superfluid has the special property of having phase, given by the wavefunction, and the velocity of the superfluid is proportional to the gradient of the phase. The circulation around any closed loop in the superfluid is zero, if the region enclosed is simply connected. The superfluid is deemed irrotational. However, if the enclosed region actually contains a smaller region that is an absence of superfluid, for example a rod through the superfluid or a vortex, then the circulation is mathematically,

 

 

where  is Planck’s constant divided by 2π, m is the mass of the superfluid particle, and Δφ is the phase difference around the vortex. Because the wavefunction must return to its same value after an integral number of turns around the vortex (similar to what is described in the Bohr model), then Δφ = 2πn, where n is an integer. Thus, we find that the circulation is quantized:

 

 

Now before you run away clutching your head looking for the Aleve, let’s explore this effect in a superconductor.

Vortex in a superconductor

A principal property of superconductors is that they expel magnetic fields; this is called the Meissner effect. If the magnetic field becomes sufficiently strong, one scenario is for the superconductive state to be “quenched”. However, in some cases, it may be energetically favorable for the superconductor to form a quantum vortex, which carries a quantized amount of magnetic flux through the superconductor. Meanwhile, the superconductive state prevails in the regions around the vortex. A superconductor that is capable of carrying a vortex is called a type-II superconductor.

Over some enclosed area S, the magnetic flux is demonstrated by:

.

Substituting a result of London’s second equation: , we discover that

,

where ns, m, and es are the number density, mass and charge of the Cooper pairs.

If the region, S, is large enough so that along , then

.

The flow of current can cause vortices in a superconductor to move. In some circumstances, this leads to energy dissipation and causes the material to display a small amount of electrical resistance while in the superconducting state

Statistical Mechanics of Vortex Lines

If the temperature is raised in a superfluid or a superconductor, the vortex loops undergo a second-order phase transition. This happens when the configurational entropy overcomes the Boltzmann factor which suppresses the thermal generation of vortex lines. The lines form a condensate. Since the center of the lines, the vortex cores, are normal liquid or normal conductors, respectively, the condensation transforms the superfluid or superconductor into the normal state. The ensembles of vortex lines and their phase transitions can be described efficiently by a gauge theory. The gauge theory has great similarity with the gauge theory of electrons and photons, the famous quantum electrodynamics (QED) and is therefore called “quantum vortex dynamics” (QVD).

Now I will provide the fly for the ointment, or rather, Geoff Haselhurst does this nicely in his paper entitled “The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) provides a more Simple & Sensible Description of Reality than Vortex Theory”, of which I will shamelessly quote from now. Keep in mind, this is his work, not my own.

Eight Arguments for Why Space cannot Flow

1. Concept of Flowing / Liquids applies to matter.

There are no justifications for applying concept of ‘flowing’ to space itself. Flowing is an empirical thing, not a metaphysical thing and all philosophers of science realize that reality is not founded on empirical things. (I would arguably disagree with the term “all here” but for the sake of introducing the grit which will eventually form the pearl, let’s hear it out. – DR)

“Rather, they start this, displaying it to the senses, …. and go on to offer more or less rigorous demonstrations of the per se attributes of their proprietary genera. This sort of procedure is inductive and it is as plain as a pikestaff that it does not amount to a demonstration of essence or of what it is to be a thing.” (Aristotle, Metaphysics)
“But also philosophy is not about perceptible substances (they, you see, are prone to destruction)” (Aristotle, Metaphysics)

2. Flowing matter is understood as loosely bound wave centers in a nearly rigid (wave medium) space.

The Wave Structure of Matter explains how liquids (and solids / gases) form due to the interaction of the spherical In and Out-Waves in a nearly rigid space / wave medium. Thus there is no need to apply the concept of ‘flowing’ to Space itself.

3. For Space to flow it cannot be continuously connected, but must be made of loosely connected parts

This causes two fundamental problems for human knowledge;
i) You are no longer describing reality from One substance thus you loose necessary connection.
ii) You must explain what these parts are and how they are connected, which requires assuming existence of many things.
(Basically you are defeating the whole purpose and beauty of WSM in explaining how matter is interconnected – which is the central problem of particle / field theories in space time.)

4. You are applying motion twice to space, as Wave Motion and as Flowing Motion of Space.

It would be strange indeed if, at the most fundamental level of reality, Motion existed in two different forms, as both Wave Motion of Space (which explains ‘flowing’ motion) and also as flowing motion of Space.

5. Thus you are not abiding by Ockham’s Razor, the most simple theory that explains most things is best.

In fact you could discuss ideas of flowing space for the next 100 years and never resolve anything, as it is obvious it will lead to
endless difficulties. (And history shows this is true, vortex theories have been around for centuries).

6. If Space flowed with planets as they orbit / spin then our observations of the universe would be affected.

7. Flowing Space contradicts Einstein’s relativity which is partly correct as follows;

i) Matter affects Space
ii) Matter is spherically spatially extended – not a particle.
iii) Space-Time (really waves in Space) is rigid.

Recapitulating, we may say that according to the general theory of relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense,
therefore, there exists an ether. According to the general theory of relativity space without ether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time (measuring-rods and clocks), nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion (i.e. flowing motion of particles) may not be applied to it. (Albert Einstein, Leiden Lecture, 1920)

“The inseparability of time and space emerged in connection with electrodynamics, or the law of propagation of light. With the discovery of the relativity of simultaneity, space and time were merged in a single continuum in a way similar to that in which the three dimensions of space had previously merged into a single continuum. Physical space was thus extended to a four dimensional space which also included the dimension of time. The four dimensional space of the special theory of relativity is just as rigid and absolute as Newton’s space. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

I should add that Einstein was very close to the truth in realising that matter was not a ‘particle’ but rather that matter, space and time are all part of one thing.

When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence:
Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter.(Albert Einstein)

His error was to work with fields and describe matter as spherical fields in spacetime, rather than spherical waves in space. His matter curves spacetime is correct once you realise that spacetime is waves in space, and these waves do affect the properties of the wave medium (e.g. curving of waves / light as it propagates past sun.

(Also see other science articles on Einstein below)

8. Finally, there is simply no empirical evidence to support it. It does not explain anything that the WSM in rigid space explains.

There is simply no justification in introducing it as a concept.

And a 9th point about vortex theory. Matter interacts spherically, vortices do not explain this, the WSM does. Matter interacts with all other matter in universe, vortex theory does not explain this, WSM does (with mathematical precision).

While we can certainly imagine ‘flowing space’ it is prudent to remember the words of Leibniz;

… a distinction must be made between true and false ideas, and that too much rein must not be given to a man’s (woman’s) imagination under pretext of its being a clear and distinct intellection. (Leibniz, 1670)

-Fin-

Now let me retake the wheel. But what if, the laws of Quantum vortex apply to “space” simply because space exhibits the properties of a superfluid as well as a superconductor? There is certainly evidence that both conditions occur. One more quote first;

The Vortex Theory is based upon the hypothesis that time does not exist as a fundamental principle of the universe, but instead, only exists as a phenomenon created by motion, a “shadow” of motion.
The implications of this single philosophical idea possess disastrous consequences for all of 20th Century science. Every belief based upon the idea of time is at jeopardy. Especially Einstein’s Theory of Relativity (Relativity is based upon the existence of a fourth dimension called “SPACE-TIME!”). It was realized that even Newton’s laws needed to be looked at again.
Although both Einstein and Newton were giants in the world of science, their reasoning processes were both based upon time. They both believed in time. Even though Newton believed time was linear [the same everywhere in the universe], and Einstein believed it was relative, the result was the same – they both believed time was a real and fundamental principle of the universe. Because of this fact, they incorporated it into their visions of how the universe was constructed.

But if time does not exist as a fundamental principle of the universe, then Einstein’s fourth dimension of space-time does not contain any “Time” characteristics. Hence, it can no longer be used as an explanation for the length shrinkage and time dilation effects revealed by Michelson and Morley’s famous experiment.
To correct this error, the true nature of time must first be discovered. Then because time was used to explain how matter, space, energy, and the forces of nature are constructed – we have to start all over again. But this “time”, using the correct nature of time, we can rediscover how matter, space, energy, and the forces of nature are really constructed. So how do we do it?

When time is eliminated as a cause for these length shrinkage and time dilation effects, the only thing left to explain what is happening is the increased velocity of matter itself as it moves through space. Consequently, there must be an intrinsic relationship between matter, space, and velocity whose interactions create a mechanical explanation for the results of the Michelson Morley experiment.

http://www.thevortextheory.com

Well Duh. The intrinsic relationship IS time!

But enough oif this. Just try to remember all of these things and stop cussing me out for giving you a migraine. On to the magical ingredient, Exotic Matter. But first, a side argument between myself and Tony Bermanseder

David – “What would happen if exotic matter mixed with our own matter?”

 

Tony – “You will have to define ‘exotic matter’ in terms of the standard model , David.
As you know, I do not envisage the presence of antimatter as necessary to model the cosmogenesis.

Relative to my understanding, the X-AntiX GUT bosonic string did NOT bifurcate into a X-Boson of matter and an Anti-X Boson for antimatter preceding the baryogenesis.

Alternatively the X-AntiX Gut Goldstone boson bifurcated directly into a quark/baryon-lepton coupling to ‘break’ the string/membrane supersymmetry from the massless Goldstone state into inertial selfstates.

Therefore, the invocation of ‘exotic matter’, say representing a negative mass definition in the standard model in addition to the equivalence principle for inertial and gravitational mass is unwarranted.

It is indicated that it is the charge of antimatter selfstates {+-E=mc^2} which is in mirror symmetry (say negative) and NOT the mass; as the oppositely charges attract before annihilation. If it were the masses negating each other, then the like charges would repel (electromagnetic interaction being stronger than the weak and gravitational interactions).

In the Casimir effect, the local ‘negative mass’ effect describes a ‘decrease in energy’ say in moving the plates closer together and so indicates a ‘negative force’.
This does not require ‘negative mass’, per se, but could be interpreted as such.

I so would say, that the ‘exotic matter’ is simply the ‘dark energy’ as the ZPE/VPE subjected to ‘confinement’, say the Casimir conductor plates or some other cavity thereby isolating the ZPE/VPE and allowing Casimir Pressure to develop.
I have invoked antimatter as a primary part of the standard model to propose the existence and the breaking of the primordial gauge symmetry.

Then this postulated matter-antimatter symmetry relates to what mass is, say in the e1quivalence principle related to the negative mass as a third such ‘equivalence’.
Then the negative mass relates to the ZPE in the Casimir effect of the ‘shielding’ of a spacetime region.

This negative mass then relates in some as yet undefined manner to ‘exotic matter’.

I do NOT subscribe to parallel universes or the ‘many worlds’ because all forms of ‘exotic matter’ become superfluous should you redefine the original breaking of the gauge symmetry not in matter-antimatter, but in EMR-AntiEMR.

Your approach should concentrate on what MASS is, before postulating ‘exotic matter’ which by definition is related to ‘negative mass’.”

 

David – “The what causes the particle annihilations?

 

For the gamma photons to manifest a ZPE transformation, say pair-annihilation or neutral pion decay OR an electron transition by Planck’s Law (fusion or fission) is required.

So if you have particle annihilation and not a transition, then the matter-antimatter coupling will be engaged.

Now the important aspect unknown by the pundits is that the gauge particles of the ZPE are COLOUR-charged (and linked to the Dirac monopole say); whilst the massproduced photons (caused by the acceleration of electro charges) are not.

So you have an incoming gamma photon which is not color charged (it is its own antiparticle in chiral probability distribution) interacting with a gluon-color-charged nucleus say.
Pair-Production then TRANSFERS the color charges of the nucleus in the gauges (gluon, virtual photon, suppressed antiphoton and graviton) to the resulting matter-antimatter pair using the colorless gamma photon as a conduit.

In your case then, the reverse quantum mechanics applies from the ZPE level (before the electron-positron pairing materializes in the E=hf<–>E=mc^2 gauge physics).

The colorless gamma photons represent so a direct manifestation of the ZPE without the invocation of the matter-antimatter coupling.

In particular the EMF Gauge-Photon ‘unifies’ with the Graviton in RGB(+1)+BGR(-2) in longrange gauge unification with the clockwise deficit (-1) coupling to the strongweak unification of the shortrange gauges in the Gluon’s RGB(+1) and the Antiphoton’s  BGR(+1).

This then allows the ‘Dark Matter’ particle (RMP(-1)=RestMassPhoton) to couple the longrange gauges to the shortrange gauges in an overall reconstitution of the primordial gauge symmetry.

The unification template is then the mesonic quark-antiquark or matter-antimatter ‘virtual’ template of the nuclear interaction, but does not manifest in the materialization of matter-antimatter couplings, say a positron-electron pairing.

With all due respect here, I disagree. Exotic matter is not have to be anti-matter, in our current understanding.  While anti-matter is certainly exotic, not all exotic matter is anti-matter. I would like to go back to the day astronomers found 90% of the universe. April 23rd, 1992. And what exactly was it that these astronomers discovered? A new kind of matter. For many years, physicists suspected that the universe must have a different kind of matter. Ordinary matter, like electrons, protons, neutrons, and everything we see on planet Earth is made up of ordinary matter. Ordinary matter strongly interacts with radiation, so it’s rather easy for astronomers to detect it.

 

But there was a small problem. Actually, it was a huge problem. In 1990, the cosmic background explorer satellite proved that the universe is extremely entropic, specifically, it’s entropy measure is 1,000,000,000. Entropy measures the efficiency with which a system radiates heat and light, and the inefficiency in which it performs work. The universe it turns out is by far the most entropic system in all existence.

This discover led to the problem. If the universe has that high a degree of entropy and all matter strongly interacts with radiation, and the radiation left over from the creation event measures to be incredibly smooth, then the matter likewise should be that smoothly distributed. But it isn’t. AHA!

 

As you look at the galaxies and clusters of galaxies, rather than being smoothly distributed like the radiation from the creation event, it’s lumpy and clumpy. Astronomers wanted to know why. We have proof that the universe was created in a hot, big, bang due to the incredible entropy, but how do we explain the galaxies? Well, the discovery of exotic matter explains the clustering of the galaxies. Exotic matter does not strongly interact with radiation, and because it doesn’t, it can clump independent of the radiation. Since it doesn’t really matter in gravity whether the matter is exotic or ordinary, the laws of physics still apply. Two massive objects will attract one another under the law of gravity, and if one of those massive objects is made of ordinary matter and the other is made of exotic matter, they will still attract. Once exotic matter clumps, it can draw ordinary matter to it, and hence we can have the universe we see today. The radiation from the creation event is still very smoothly distributed, but the galaxies and clusters of galaxies are clumped.

 

April 23, 1992 was the first detection an astronomer made of this type of matter. Since that time, there have been seven other independent detections of this exotic matter.

 

But even this isn’t the only exotic matter. Experiments at CERN and at FermiLab have also created forms of exotic matter, albeit in small amounts. And guess what? It isn’t anti-matter. It is matter with negative mass. Now we can move forward with prying open the oyster, and producing the pearl.

 

The Megaverse

As you all know by now, and are probably driven crazy from my ramblings, I am trying to make a “quantum leap” from a hypothesis to a theory on a special kind of wormhole. As such, I have to reconcile my differences to formulate an explanation that is at least displaying some resemblance of probability. In order to do this I had to come to grips with the holographic boundary effect, not at the universe level, but as a containment boundary in which the mega-verse manifests. Hence the “stew pot” analogy; the exotic matter would be the medium in which the universes within the mega-verse “floats”; the savory flavors would represent the interaction that these individual universes exhibit on the medium, and this could very well explain what we have recently discovered and called “Dark Flow”; additionally, remnants of the genesis of the mega-verse has left numerous cosmic superstrings, each vibrating at its own special frequency. At times, these strings come into close proximity with one another; as they approach, they seek resonance with one another, and entangle; entanglement is complete when both strings hit mutual resonance or harmonize; at this point, a double helix wormhole forms and stabilizes with the assistance of the exotic matter from the medium being “sucked” into the dual throats; a “quantum conduit” completes the connection between two adjacent Universes, but almost immediately minor annihilations occur when the exotic matter mixes with our own matter; Once the exotic matter depletes to a certain point, instability occurs, and the wormhole structure collapses. But let’s start at the top and work our way down. To me the megaverse is a huge pot of stew. The pot itself is comprised of the holographic boundary. This concept is commonly used to explain our universe; but it goes far beyond our universe. The holographic principle is a property of quantum gravity and string theories which states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a boundary to the region specifically a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon. First proposed by Gerardus ‘t Hooft, it was given a precise string-theory interpretation by the plumber, Leonard Susskind (Leonard started out as a plumber before becoming one of the greatest quantum Physicists in the world).

 

In a larger and more speculative sense, the theory suggests that the entire universe and in my perspective, the megaverse, can be seen as a two-dimensional information structure “painted” on the cosmological horizon, such that the three dimensions we observe are only an effective description at macroscopic scales and at low energies. Cosmological holography has not been made mathematically precise, partly because the cosmological horizon has a finite area and grows with time.

 

The holographic principle was inspired by black hole thermodynamics, which implies that the maximal entropy in any region scales with the radius squared, and not cubed as might be expected. In the case of a black hole, the insight was that the description of all the objects which have fallen in can be entirely contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. The holographic principle resolves the black hole information paradox within the framework of string theory. So let’s say that the pot, is the holographic boundary. It keeps the stew contained.

 

 

The Holographic Boundary of the Megaverse – The “Stew Pot”

The stew pot of course is filled with all the ingredients of the megaverse, which of course would be all the universes, (the carrots, onions, meat, celery would be the universes).

 

 

The universes that are ingredients of the stew

 

But the universes must remain isolated from each other, or catastrophic events could occur when matter that is opposite, or out of phase touches, the megaverse could become a megaboom. This insulating material, or “broth”, would be exotic matter. This would allow the universes to freely float around in the pot of stew, and come very close to one another without creating any interference on a grand or macro scale. However, there are exceptions. Recently, astronomers have discovered at the center of our galaxy not just a large wormhole, but two large wormholes, orbiting each other, creating a quantum vortex. On January 4th, 2010, Universe today ran this article:

 

Dual Black Holes Spinning in a Cosmic Dance – Complete with Disco Ball

Astronomers have discovered 33 pairs of merging black holes in cosmic dances around each other, a finding that was predicted or ‘choreographed’ by Isaac Newton. “These results are significant because we now know that these ‘waltzing’ black holes are much more common than previously known,” said Dr. Julia Comerford of the University of California, Berkeley, at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Washington, DC. “Galaxy mergers are causing the waltzing, can use this finding to determine how often mergers occur. The black holes dancing towards us are shifted towards blue light, and those moving away from us are shifted toward the red. So it is like a cosmic disco ball showing us where the black holes are dancing.”

 

An image of the galaxy COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2 taken with

the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope.

Image courtesy Dr. Julia Comerford.

 

The dances are occurring in dual black holes, which are different from binary black holes in that the distance between the two objects is much larger for dual black holes.

 

“These black holes have a separation of a kilo parsec,” said Comerford. “You haven’t heard about lots of small binary black holes, because no one has definitively found any yet. But this is the next best thing. We know these duals are going to merge and can use models to find out how often they merge.”

 

The team was able to observe the black holes that have gas collapsing onto them, and this gas releases energy and powers each black hole as an active galactic nucleus (AGN), which lights up the black hole like a Christmas tree.

 

Astronomical observations have shown that nearly every galaxy has a central supermassive black hole (with a mass of a million to a billion times the mass of the Sun), and also that galaxies commonly collide and merge to form new, more massive galaxies. As a consequence of these two observations, a merger between two galaxies should bring two supermassive black holes to the new, more massive galaxy formed from the merger. The two black holes gradually in-spiral toward the center of this galaxy, engaging in a gravitational tug-of-war with the surrounding stars. The result is a black hole dance. Such a dance is expected to occur in our own Milky Way Galaxy in about 3 billion years, when it collides with the Andromeda Galaxy.

 

The team of astronomers used two new techniques to discover the waltzing black holes. First, they identified waltzing black holes and their velocities by the disco ball of the red-shift or blue-shift.

 

The second technique for identifying waltzing black holes through a chance discovery of a curious-looking galaxy. While visually inspecting images of galaxies taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope, the team noticed a galaxy with a tidal tail of stars, gas, and dust, an unmistakable sign that the galaxy had recently merged with another galaxy, and the galaxy also featured two bright nuclei near its center. The team recognized that the two bright nuclei might be the AGNs of two waltzing black holes, a hypothesis seemingly supported by the recent galaxy merger activity evinced by the tidal tail. To test this hypothesis, the very next night the team obtained a spectrum of the galaxy with the DEIMOS spectrograph on the 10-meter (400-inch) Keck II Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

 

The spectrum showed that the two central nuclei in the galaxy were indeed both AGNs, supporting the team’s hypothesis that the galaxy has two supermassive black holes. The black holes may be waltzing within the host galaxy, or the galaxy may have a recoiling black hole kicked out of the galaxy by gravity wave emission; additional observations are necessary to distinguish between these explanations.

 

Comerford said these new techniques can be used to find many more waltzing pairs in the future.

 

Could this be a macro example of the famous Double Helix, famous in the micro realm as DNA? Yes Virginia, it is. So now, at the galaxy level, we have a double helix, a quantum vortex, and evidence of matter flow. Coupled with super conductivity. Ummmm…remember how this paper began? And where do the energy, mass and matter that enter these black holes go? How does our universe continue to expand?

 

In the megaverse, there are all types of universes in all states of existence. Some expanding, some contracting. The law of conservation of energy is an empirical law of physics. It states that the total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant over time (is said to be conserved over time). A consequence of this law is that energy can neither be created nor destroyed: it can only be transformed from one state to another. The only thing that can happen to energy in a closed system is that it can change form: for instance chemical energy can become kinetic energy. So if our universe is expanding, where is the energy coming from? It may be from other universes that are contracting. If this is the case, our universe may have started with a big flow, not a big bang. Perhaps it was a big pop. Consider two universes in close proximity in the stew pot. A brane emerges from one due to expansion. That brane, a bubble if you will, bulges out. It erupts into an adjacent small universe, and begins to pour massive amounts of matter and energy into the smaller bubble. The smaller bubble expands at a fantastic, or “explosive” rate, and like a deflating balloon, the universe feed it begins to contract. Or instead of a brane, or bubble, let’s think of an incredibly large black hole. A black hole may punch through into the smaller bubble with accelerated energy and matter pouring out of its host universe. But no matter how the mechanics work, no energy conservation law is violated. But back to the pearl of the paranormal paradox. The worm hole. Specifically, the Transuniversal Wormhole.

 

Floating in the broth, are incredibly long cosmic strings. These strings are numerous, perhaps infinite in theor population, and each one of them vibrates at its own unique frequency. On occasion, however, these strings approach one another. As they do, they begin to resonate with each other and entangle. As they entangle, the form a double helix as part of a quantum vortex effect. If there are two adjacent universes in proximity to this entanglement, the strings will be affected by the gravitational pull of these universes.

 

 

Two Cosmic Strings approach

 

 

The begin to resonate

 

 

 

Once they reach resonance they entangle, the gravity of the two adjacent universes attract them. In some cases, one end of the pair goes toward one universe, while the opposite ends are attracted to the other. As they come into contact, the “broth” of exotic matter stabilizes the throats, and a conduit is created.

 

 

 

Connected, stable, trans-universal wormhole

 

At this point, information, energy and matter can travel back and forth between the two universes, depending on which conduit tube they travel through. But, there is a problem. Due to incompatibility with exotic matter and our own matter, since we are not isolated from direct contact by a holographic barrier, particle annihilations occur. The exotic matter quickly depletes, and the wormhole collapses, only to reform once a sufficient amount of stabilizing exotic matter is accumulated. So how does this tie into the study of paranormal phenomena?

 

Paranormal phenomena, regardless of the area of study (Cryptozoology, UFOlogy or “spirit manifestations” are highly transitory. They come and go, much like a wormhole. What if, these wormholes are the conduit between our world and the next? My team has collected evidence that may indicate just such a relationship.

 

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